Cotton: Basic Information

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

Climate and Soil

The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. Soils usually need to be fairly heavy but it growth in verities of soil sandy to clayey. pH range 5.0-7.0
Growth and Development
• Optimum temperature for growth of cotton is 24C°-34C°
Germination
• After the seed is planted, it takes around 5- 10 days to germinate and sprout.

Fruit Development
• The development of the fruit, also called the boll is a complex process.
• The flower petals are white when they open.
• By the next day the flowers may turn reddish to purple.
• As the seeds and fibers mature, the boll expands.
• When the seed and fiber development is complete the boll splits.
• The open dried boll, which holds the fibers and seeds, is also called the bur.
• It takes 55 days to develop a cotton boll. If the weather is cloudy and colder, the boll development will be delayed. Late in the season, boll development takes approximately 65 to 75 days.
Stem and shoot
• The shoot system of the cotton plant is made up of a main axis stem, leaves, buds, branches, floral buds, flowers, and bolls.
• Cotton shoot apical meristems are quite typical when compared to other dicotyledonous plants.

Leaves
The cotton plant has two kinds of leaves: cotyledonary leaves and true leaves.
• Cotyledonary leaves emerge before the true leaves. The cotton seed has two well-developed cotyledons.
• True leaves have 3-5 lobes. The cuts may be deep or may only be half cut

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Yield
2.5 bales/ha (1 bales=218 kg)
Nutrients Requirements
Crop CPR Nitrogen Phosphate Potash
(kg/ha)
Cotton Punjab I 120-170 60 60

Authors: Muhammad Usman , Abdulmajid , Sajid sarwar deportment of Soil Science University College of Agriculture Sargodha

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