Vegetable production is gaining popularity in Pakistan. Almost 70 percent vegetables are grown in Pakistan. Brinjal is the most common vegetable crop of Pakistan that belongs to the Solanaceae family. It is native to the India. It is considered as a staple food. It is a rich source of vitamin A and B. Brinjal require the warm climate for the good and high production. Instead of this it is sensitive to the high frost by which the plant damaged quickly.
For the winter-autumn crop seeds are sown in the month of June, and for the production of spring-winter crop the seeds are sown in the month of early November. Brinjal crop is grown well in the well-drained and fertile soil but clay loam soil is best for the production of good crop yield.
Rai Ikhlaq Ahmed, Dr. Mujahid Ali
University of Sargoda
Brinjal is our important vegetable that is used on a wide range for cooking and many other purposes. Brinjal is a very nutritious vegetable it has a great source of calcium, iron, magnesium, copper, vitamin K, vitamin B, vitamin C and manganese that play an important role for the proper functions of our body. Brinjal contain the low amount of calories, it contains mostly water which have rich amount of protein, fiber and carbohydrates and less amount of fats.
Eggplant strengthens immunity in our body due to the presence of phenolic compounds, and vitamin C, Nasunin that also prevent from the risk of cancer. Brinjal also reduces the bones problem like bone degradation and osteoporosis due to the rich source of iron, calcium magnesium and potassium. Eggplant also removes the body heat and releases the food stagnation in the large intestine and give relief from constipation. Damping off is the disease in brinjal nursery that causes several damages to the plants, this disease caused by high humidity level, moisture and moderate temperature. It also has two types’ pre-emergence damping off and post-emergence damping off. In pre-emergence damping off it results in the seed and seedling roots and in the post emergence damping off it results in the juvenile tissue at ground level. It can be controlled by selecting the healthy seeds, not to grow nursery on the same plot again and again, treat the seedling with 2g/kg of Thiram solution before sowing, it can be controlled by the spreading of polythene sheet over the bed for 30 days or bio controls by Trichoderma viride in the soil @1.2 kg in the soil.
Brinjal has a lot of health benefits that will make your skin smooth, soft, and reduce the sign of aging because brinjal has a huge percentage of water which make your body and skin hydrated and in winter season it will also helpful for your skin. Brinjal is very helpful for your hairs because it facilitates the follicles on your hairs that promote your growth of hairs, it also helpful for the dry hair and give more shine to them. It is also helpful for the diabetic patients because it regulates the sugar level due to the presence of carbohydrates and fiber. It is also good for the heart because it reduces the cholesterol level due to which the risks of heart attack will also less. It contains the phytonutrient and help to protect the cell membrane which give massages from one cell to the other. Brinjal is a good source of iron that play an important role in our body that it promotes circulation of oxygen to all parts of body but too much iron is not essential for our body however it also releases excess iron from our body which is done by the chemical Nasunin that is present in the eggplant. Eggplant has a huge amount of nicotine which is present in the form of vitamins, hence it reduces the dependence of nicotine in our body which help to quit smoking. Eggplant is a good antiviral and antibiotic due to the presence of good amount of vitamin C in them.
PHOMOPSIS blight is also the disease of brinjal that effect the foliage and also the fruit, it is the fungus that attack on seedling which cause damping off symptom, it cause circular spots on the leaves and irregular blackish margins may also appear on stem and petiole, on the fruits it appear in the form of small dusky spot which after the passage of time turn into rotten form, it can be controlled by the removal of infected plant and by the crop rotation, by treating the seed with Thiram or spray with Dithane (0.2%)or by 1% Bordeaux mixture easily.
Leaf Spotis also the disease of brinjal that is characterized by chlorotic lesion that are irregular in shape by which the leaves of the plants dropout at the premature stage which results in the low yield. It can be controlled by the removal of infected plants from the field and by the spraying of 0.1% Bavistin or cholorothalonil in 2 gram/litter of water.
ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT
ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT is also the disease of brinjal that can be seen as a leaf spot with concentric rings due to which the mostly leafs are dropout from the plant and it also attacked on the fruit that can be seen as a large deep seated spot by which the fruit become yellow and then drop off at premature stage. It can be controlled by the destruction of the affected plants and also by the spraying of Bavistin 0.1% to the plants. Fruit rot is also the major disease of brinjal plant that is caused by the high humidity level, symptom appear as a water soaked lesion on the fruit, the infected part become brown in color and white cottony growth also developed.
VERTICILLIUM WILT is also the major disease of brinjal that attacked on the young plant and also on the mature stage. In this disease the young plant growth become stunned and dwarf due the shortening of the internodes by which the flower and fruit initiation is stopped. If it is attacked on the plant after flower initiation the development in stunned and the fruit dropout from the plant, the leaves show the necrotic pale yellow spots over lamina of leaf, then after a few days it show complete wilting. It can be controlled by the avoiding the crop rotation with potato, okra and tomato or by foliar application of 0.1% Benlate on the soil.
BACTERIAL WILT is also the major problem of the brinjal plant in which in which the wilting of the foliage is appear then whole plant is collapse. Sometime the plant become yellowing however the entire plant die. It can be controlled by the destruction or uprooting of the whole plant from the field and use resistant varieties, it can also be controlled by avoiding the crop rotation of potato, okra and tomato, it can also be controlled by dipping their seeds (1 gram/40 litter of water) in the streptocycline solution for approximately 30 minutes.
LITTLE LEAF OF BRINJAL
LITTLE LEAF OF BRINJAL is viral disease of brinjal plant, it is transmitted by insect leaf hoper. In the first stage the leaf of the plant become light yellow in color. The petioles and internodes become shorter and buds are grown on the axils of the leaves due to which the plant look like a bush. Due to this disease the plant does not bear fruits but if plant show bearing then the fruits are small in size, hard and can’t mature. It can be controlled by early removal of infected plant from the field. To avoid the attack of leafhopper we sow the seeds at the proper time. It can also be controlled by the application of Malathion 2ml in one litter of water at the time when leafhopper attack.
MOSAIC virus is also the main disease of Brinjel in which the molting of the leaves is done and the plant shows the stunned growth. This disease can be reduced by controlling the population of aphids and also by uprooting the weed plants properly on which the aphid attacked. Aphid is also controlled by applying 1kg/hectare carbofuran at the time of sowing in nursery.