Introduction Organic farming in Europe has seen a dynamic development over the past few years. From 1993 to 1999 the area under organic management more…
FOOD safety has always been the most strategic purpose of the countries, worldwide. Food security is a complementary module due to losses persevered by a number of biotic and abiotic components throughout production, handling and garage. The extent of such losses relies on post-harvest management machine and pest regulate measures.
Among destructive brokers, pest insects play a significant role in post-harvest system of perishable and semi-perishable agricultural products. Wheat is a staple meals of the folks and meals security-cum-safety plans include its manufacturing and coverage.
Wheat manufacturing fluctuates round 20 million tons which is enough to accomplish our meals, feed, and seed requirements for few years. By 2010, our wheat requirement will be about 25.five million tons. Presently, any deficit in home production is compensated with imports.
According to scientists, post-harvest wheat losses range from 2.5 to 15.three according to cent depending upon the dealing with and storage prerequisites as those are top in non-public sector because of the unawareness about pest control protocols and uncertain garage and advertising gadget.
Presently, food grains are secure from pest insects by the usage of artificial insecticides and fumigants. In early 90’s, the Punjab Food Department controlled insect pests of stored-wheat with one pill of Aluminum Phosphide consistent with cubic meter volume which now is being carried out with three drugs for controlling the resistant lines of insects.
a Large Amount Of foreign currency is spent on the import of insecticides which can be have shyed away from via utilising our domestic herbal resources. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission of the WTO beneficial natural regulate of insect pests to make food merchandise consistent with the International Standards Organization. Keeping in view the demands, it was decided to orientate the analysis towards natural control of pest insects in saved wheat and decided on native botanicals.
In the new previous, insecticidal properties including toxicity, feeding-repellence, floor protection and oviposition deterrence had been confirmed by means of other researchers in opposition to the insect pests of stored grains in laboratory studies. Accordingly, oils of those botanicals had been used in the natural control of pest-insects with the mixing of asepsis, disinfestations, and other packing fabrics below herbal prerequisites within the warehouses. This used to be achieved to increase an IPM protocol for protected storage system at farm level by means of replacing the artificial pesticides.
Insect-free jute and cotton luggage made from the material of various densities (mesh sizes) had been sprayed-over with 4 other concentrations from each of the botanical oils and combinations in 3 sets for three garage classes (30, 60 and 90 days) every, with 3 replications.
Infestation unfastened wheat of recent crop was packed in the luggage, handled with other concentrations of take a look at materials to evaluate their antixenosis and antibiosis. The experimental units were placed in ventilated warehouses of flourmills beneath beneficial conditions for the multiplication of stored product bugs.
The concentrations appearing considerable efficacy have been attempted as mixtures to note their effects. Absolute knowledge, regarding mortality, penetration into the treated bags and insect inhabitants construct had been gathered at specified intervals. After finishing touch of the experiment, rheological exams were applied to the flour constructed from the treated and untreated wheat to note adjustments in dough-development and sensory analysis of chapatti.
On the research of knowledge, other concentrations, storage periods and packing fabrics showed an important effect upon penetration of insects into the baggage and mortality of insects because of their frame touch with botanical oils. The stage of antixenosis and antibiosis confirmed a favorable correlation with the focus of the botanicals however adverse with the garage periods.
Penetration into bags was once inversely proportional and bug mortality directly proportional to the density of packing fabrics. Mixture of 3 botanical oils with 10 in step with cent concentration of each and every gave effective regulate of the objective bugs for 2 months with a superb cotton material packing which diminished gradually in the 3rd month.
Farinographic studies confirmed no important changes in dough development houses of the flour made out of the wheat saved in bags handled with the botanicals. Moreover, sensory evaluation proved that there used to be no distinguishable style or taint present in chapatti made out of the flour of the wheat packed in the handled luggage.
Recommendations: Farmers can save grain, environment and capital through the usage of the oil of castor seeds, neem seeds and rhizomes of candy flag plant to control insect pests. Oils will have to be jumbled together equivalent percentage and sprayed over jute/cotton luggage for use for packing of wiped clean/insect free wheat.
The mixture could also be sprayed with the help of a fine sprayer. New crop wheat will have to be unfold on steel sheets or cemented flooring in the sun as much as the temperatures at 55ºC for approximately 4 hours.
These sun-heated wheat grains having moisture contents not more than 8 in line with cent may be packed in treated baggage to get a protected garage for 2 to 3 months best. If wheat is to be stored for more than 3 months then repeat the botanical software after each two months. Insect loose new crop wheat with new handled baggage and proper sealing may give better effects.
Moreover, appropriate restore, cleansing and treatment of godowns/packing containers are also a supplement for the good fortune of the steered insect pests control measure.