Principle of Crop Rotation

Crop rotation done according to the principle of crop rotation it can help full in maintain the soil fertility.

Crop Rotation

It is defined as the growing of crops in an orderly and well planned way. It depends upon

1. Type of crop sown
2. Local economic factor
3. Traditioning
4. Objective of crop rotation

To prevent the built up of insect pest, weeds and soil born diseases
To maintain soil fertility for the next crop
To conserve soil erosion which may cause from wind or water
To conserve soil moisture from one season for the next
To ensure a balanced programme of work throughout the season

Principle of crop Rotation

The traditional principles on which the planning of crop rotations is based are following which are helpful for the best crop rotation

Alternating growing of crops with differential ability to absorb nutrients from the soil or having different root depth
A planned succession of crops that take it to account any detrimental or beneficial effects of one crop on the following crop. These affects may be due to toxic organic matter, soil structure, soil micro organisms or residual soil moisture
Alternating crops susceptible to certain diseases with those that are resistant ( alternate host provision)
Alternating soil exhausting crops with crops that contribute to the improvement of soil fertility
Alternating crops with different peak requirements of labor and water etc.
The traditional crops rotation is in general exhausting and makes no contributions to soil fertility. The basic problem is therefore to device a crop rotation that will raise the level of soil fertility thus making it possible for the following crop to benefit fully from the favorable moisture require prevailing during its growing periods. It is frequently assumed that pulses are desirable proceeding crops for the winter cereals and it was originally that increasing the area under pulses would have beneficial effects on soil fertility. However results are always disappointing at harvesting. A seed crop from the legume usually result in a drop of at least 30% in the yield of the following wheat crop as compared with following wheat with fallow

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Legume (seed) ______ Wheat (30%loss)

Wheat ____________ Fallow ________ Wheat

Leguminous crops that are not allowed to mature seed but are used for green manure, hay, silage, have been shown to improving the soil fertility. When a deep rooted legume crop such a lucern is turned under for green manure, the soil has usually dried out to a depth of several feet when the legume is cut before seed I formed the amount of plant nutrients removed from the soil is relatively small while the soil is enriched in nitrogen and organic matter.

Factor affecting crop rotation

Climate
Climate is the one of most important factor which is effect the crop rotation either by wind, rain or other factors.

Type and nature of soil
Type and nature of soil is also important factor which effects the crop rotation some soil are fertile and some are low in fertility

Availability of inputs
Availability of inputs at the place is also effects the crop rotation like fertilizer, pesticide etc

Availability of labor
Availability of labor is effect the crop rotation. The labor is required at the critical stages of crop if the labor is not available at that time the crop may cause loss

Situation of farm
The farm location is also very important factor which is effect the crop rotation.

Size of Farm
The size of farm is effects the crop rotation. Small land holding is major problem in Pakistan that’s why crop rotation is effect by the farm size

Type of farming
Type of farming is also effect the crop rotation

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Types of crop Rotation

According to residual effect on soil
Exhaustive rotation
Restorative rotation
According to periods of time
Fixed Rotation
Flexible rotation

Conclusion:

The crop rotation is very important in the Agriculture. Crop rotation done according to the principle of crop rotation it can help full in maintain the soil fertility.

Aqib Hussain Sial

Department of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

 

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