Shrimp (Prawn) Farming

Shrimp (Prawn) Farming

Today, let us discuss about frequently asked questions about shrimp farming.

What feed is given to the farmed shrimp?

Feed for the shrimp should contain a minimum recommended protein content of 32-45%. The percentage of feed depends on the size of the shrimp. The diet should include protein, lipid, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals etc.

How much does it cost to start a shrimp farm?

Shrimp farming requires various components (fixed and variable) and it is estimated that the fixed costs for beginning a shrimp farm is approximately 24 lakhs and variable costs is around 13-14 lakhs.

How long does it take to grow shrimp?

Generally from the shrimp hatch to the harvest takes about 7 to 8 months. Again, it depends on what size of shrimp is required for the market. Dwarf shrimp usually takes much lesser time from hatch to harvest.

How many shrimp can you have per gallon?

It is recommended to put 10 small shrimp per gallon of water. However, if someone is new to shrimp farming then it is recommended to farm only 5 shrimp per 1 gallon of water. Many experienced farmer’s house more than 100 shrimp per 100 gallons of water.

How long do shrimp eggs take to hatch?

Generally, each shrimp has 20-30 eggs, which take 2 to 3 weeks to hatch. Normally the egg is green or yellow in colour and it gets darker until the young shrimp hatch after 3 weeks.

Can shrimp be raised in freshwater?

Farming shrimps in a freshwater tank is not economical because shrimps are extremely territorial and cannibalistic, which causes poor survival in tanks. Freshwater culture is not recommended for shrimp farming.

How big can shrimps grow?

Generally pond raised shrimp juveniles grow from 3 cm in length to a size of 75 to 100 g in about five to six months.

What should be the quality of water for shrimp farming?

Shrimp farming needs best quality water in terms of oxygen levels. The pond or tank in which the shrimp are farmed should be aerated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The other parameters of water that are equally important are temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness, etc. The pH of the water should always be less than 10 because beyond this level it causes mortality.

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How many shrimps do I stock at a place?

The general stocking density of shrimp per acre of land is 16,000 to 24,000 shrimps. This value again depends on the size of the shrimp being farmed. When shrimp are farmed in low densities, they grow to large size. Normally, semi-intensive culture farms stock around 10-20 PL/m². Intensive culture farms stock up to 25 to 30 PL/m² when the depth of water is about 1.2 m.

How do you take care of the shrimp?

Taking care of shrimps is always simple and rewarding. The steps are as follows:

  • The tank setup should be of minimum 5 gallons.
  • Get a filter and air pump for the tank.
  • Prepare a gravel or sand bed at the bottom of the tank.
  • Feed the shrimp two times a day.
  • Maintain the temperature of water in the tank at around 18 to 28˚C.
  • Create a good plant environment.

 

What kind of pond is needed to grow fresh water shrimp?

Freshwater shrimp can be grown in small ponds that are 1/10th of an acre or can be as large as 5 acres.  There should be no other fish, amphibians or turtles in the pond. The ponds are drainable and seinable.  New ponds can have less productivity, but well established ponds give higher productivity because they support higher levels of supplemental food sources such as algae, insect larvae, planktonic etc.

What should be the soil condition for shrimp farming?

The soil type is a very important factor while shrimp farming because the shrimp spend most of the time at the bottom of the pond. The soil should be of clay or loam based with at least 90% of clay. The pH of the soil has to be in between 6.5 to 8.5. Care should be taken to avoid mangrove or acid sulphate soils.

What are the different types of shrimp culture?

Shrimp are farmed on the basis of three different cultures, they are:

  • Traditional or extensive culture
  • Semi-intensive culture
  • Intensive culture
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What are the two methods of shrimp pond cleaning?

Basically cleaning of the pond indicates removal of wastes such as organic and phosphatic wastes that accumulate at the bottom of the tank or pond. There are two ways of cleaning the shrimp growing ponds; they are dry method and wet method.

What is dry method of cleaning the ponds?

The name indicates that the bottom of the pond can be dried completely. The water is completely drained and allowed to dry in the sun for about 30 days. After this period the waste is removed either manually or through mechanical ways. This method can make the pond acidic in nature.

What is the wet method of cleaning the ponds?

The water in the pond is cleaned of waste material by pressure washing, which flushes the waste out of the area. The dark anaerobic layer and acid is removed from the soil in the pond. Oxidation of soil should be avoided in this method.

How are predators eliminated from the pond area?

Chemicals are used to remove predators like fish and snails from the pond. Fish in the pond can be killed by the use of tea seed powder @ 20-30 ppm. Application of quick lime @ 530 kg/ha and sun drying for 2-3 days can help eliminate snails from the ponds.

How do you fertilize the pond?

The ponds are usually fertilized with organic or inorganic fertilizers so as to simulate the plankton bloom. This bloom helps to prevent the growth of harmful benthic algae at the bottom of the pond. The commonly used organic fertilizer is chicken manure (sun-dried) @ 200 to 300 kg/ha. This manure is soaked in water for at least 24 hours before being spread on the surface of water.

Urea, ammonium phosphate, etc. are forms of inorganic fertilizers applied @ 20-30 kg/ha. These fertilizers should be dissolved in water before spreading on the surface so as to avoid precipitation of the fertilizer compounds at the bottom of the pond.

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