Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) is used as common beverage in almost all over the sector. Pakistan has a long custom in tea drinking which has grow to be a favourite source of entertainment in the society. The in step with capita intake is one kilogram. Pakistan imports all its tea requirements from out of the country and, thus, the overall annual import of tea was 2,60,000 m. tons in 2000 which costed about Rs. 12.0 billion to the national exchequer. Presently, Pakistan is the second biggest importer of tea after United Kingdom. Demand for tea is rising daily and in the wake of prime growth price of population (three.1% once a year)
Soil and Climate
Tea is a crop of broad adaptability and grows in a various range of climates and soils in more than a few portions of the arena. Deep liable loam and forest land rich in natural matter could be very ideally suited. Generally tea soils of Pakistan are usually with natural issues, N, Potash, low okay, lime and magnesia content material hence soil Reaction is medium to strongly acidic.
Practice of liming isn’t adopted in ease of tea because tea-does now not thrive properly on a soil which contains greater than a trace of lively lime sub soil must now not be hard and Stiff and expansion of tea on clay soil is extra uniform and tea is of higher quality than tea grown on coarse sandy soils.
i) Climate: Annual rainfall above 1000mm Air temperature: 12° – 30° C ii) Soil: pH value starting from four.5 to six.five iii) Labour: Cheap and good enough
Tea is taken on hilly areas; the land is prepared by reducing of low growing crops arid unwanted forest bushes are cut and removed. Except few selected ones left for colour Stoop slopes are terraced and provided with contour drains and silt traps. A thick-wind-break of silver oak (Gravilica rohusta) is planted on the outer edge.
Also coloration trees Viz. Silver oak, Jack are planted at adjoined 12-15 m apart a 12 months prematurely of the principle plantation to supply coverage: to provide protection towards i.e. to offer shade, heat and torrential rains. They are lopped every year to offer adequate light and air.After field / land preparation pits measuring of 30-45 em deep, 22 cm diameter, are dug at distance of 1.2 to at least one.five m from one any other. Filled with mix of floor soil + FYM leaf mildew.
The best-known Chinese variety, Keemun, was tested under the environmental conditions of Pakistan, and the expansion, production and green tea was once discovered to be successful.
Districts of Mansehra, Battagram, Swat and AJK.
Raising of Seedlings
Generally propagated via seeds; but vegetatively propagated crops give prime yield, top quality, budding, grafting and layering have also been found a hit.
Seeds sown first in germinating beds, then seedlings transferred- to other nurseries or baskets containing, unfastened friable soil. Here seedlings are allowed to grow for 6-8 months and therefore 1.five year (17 months) old seedlings are planted in April – May or Sept. Oct. In pits (up to now ready) dug within the everlasting stags, Gapfiling as- well- as replacing, in to 30 years old timber are also carried out at the moment.
Fertilizers combinations supplying 60 kg N: 30 kg. P2O5 30 K20/ha are carried out in one or two doses after pruning. Nitrogenous manuring is very very important for . promotion for leaf expansion. Besides this software of compost and get advantages derived from leaf fall of leguminous coloration timber are grown for incorporation in the soil as inexperienced manures.
The tea-gardens are hood and weeded 3 to 5 times all the way through the rainy season. Shade timber are lopped to promote lateral development which can colour massive area.
Topping and Pruning
Tea bush is pruned incessantly to care for correct color i.e. 1,2 to-1.5 meter diameter at 1 to L2 meter peak.When the vegetation are one year old-and have attained a height of 45 cm at this stage entering is finished. Main stem is minimize a couple of cm. above ground. The new laterials evolved by the plant are once more reduce a bit upper up.This process is repeated yearly. In 4 or5 years me plant turns into a mature bush of 45-60 cm height and is ready to yield a crop. To encourage lateral unfold, all shoots rising thru heart of the bush should be got rid of.After a cycle of pruning, the bush is cut back to 2-3 cm underneath the primary reduce This encourages fresh laterals and maintains yield at a high degree.
Plucking and Processing
Tea bush is ready for yielding after four to 5 years of planting and having a peak of 45-60 cm. Usually plucking is specific to 2 leaves and a bud. This is called a high-quality and lightweight plucking. Coarse plucking includes extra one or two leaves. In North Tea is plucked at interval of 7-10 days from April-Dec. in South plucking continues throughout the years at weekly interval throughout March-May and at 10-14 days throughout different 3 months i.e. all the way through June-Feb. (9 months).
For manufacturing of Black tea, the plucked leaves are dried for 18 – 24 hours in ventilated indoor racks rolled for part an hour routinely to breakup cells, then fermented or oxidized again for eight hours at 27°C to 105°C and handed through sieves of different moshes, thus finding out grades and again graded into.
a) leaf b) Broken c) Dust tea.
The reasonable yield is 1200-1500 kg/ha of made tea. Vegetatively propagated clones continuously give up to 2000 kg/taken right through cultivation and processing but on natural components similar to soil, local weather, altitude and topography. Leaves are wealthy in caffeine and tannin.