Q1: Is there any rice cultivation method other than traditional paddy transplanting?
Ans: Yes, there is a suitable substitute to manual seedling transplanting called as direct dry seeding of rice-cultivation system.
Q2: What is the direct dry seeding of rice-cultivation (DDSR) system?
Ans; After harvesting of the wheat crop, do single deep cultivation of the field. Then, at the time of sowing of the rice first irrigate the field (called as “Rouni irrigation”) just few days before sowing of the crop. When field comes in “wattar” conditions (optimum soil moisture level), prepare the fine seedbed by applying 1-2 shallow cultivations either with tractor or bullocks followed by light planking. Then use the Rabi drill to seeding the crop in well prepared and leveled field at optimum soil-moisture conditions.Broadcasting of the seeds is not recommended. Farmers must always use drill for sowing the rice crop to get the optimum crop germination and having the desired stand establishment of the crop.
Q3: What are the varieties used for direct dry seeding of rice-cultivation system?
Ans: There is no specific rice variety for the direct dry rice-cultivation system. The rice varieties being used for paddy planting by the farmers can also be used in dry rice cultivation. Direct dry seeding of rice is a new rice cultivation method in which rice is seeded directly into moist “wattar” soil conditions like winter wheat by using seed drill. Thus any approved rice variety can be used for this system.
Q3: How much seed can be used?
Ans: Farmer must use the healthy seed @15-20 kg per acre. The seed may be soaked for 8 hours and dry it for few hours in the shade to decrease the surface moisture content of the seeds that facilitates its free flow during seeding with drill. Soaking of seed with Topsin-M/Vitawax (@ 2 gram/Kg of seed) eliminates or reduces seed borne and soil born diseases.
Q4: What is the optimum time for DDSR system?
Ans: The best planting time for DDSR cultivation 20-25 days earlier than the traditional paddy transplanting period. Thus the optimum time for sowing of rice with DDSR system is last week of May to Mid June to get optimum yield.
Q5: Do we need to keep the flooding condition in DDSR cultivation system?
Ans: Absolutely not. In DDSR system rice crop does not require continuous flooding and can be safely irrigated. First irrigation may be given when germination completes and plants demand for irrigation water, most probably at 25-30 days after sowing. Subsequent irrigations may be given in 4-5 days intervals to keep the field saturated up to 40 days. Then, the interval between irrigations may be increased to keep the field at optimum moisture level (Watter). However, water stress be avoided at tilling, panicle initiation, and grain filling stages which are very crucial for obtaining higher yields.
Q6: How to control weeds in DDSR cultivation system?
Ans: Weeds are a major concern for high productivity in this new rice cultivation system. The pre- sowing herbicides like Pendimethalin, Stamp can beapplied immediate after seeding. Then, 30-35 days after sowing, when maximum weeds appear, post-emergence herbicides like, Clover (Bispyrbac Sodium) and Pyranex Gold 30% WDG can be used for effective control of weeds
Q7: What is fertilizer dose to be applied in Direct Dry rice cultivation system?
Ans: Full dose of P and K (1-1.5 bags DAP and 1 bag SOP per acre) may be applied at sowing. While, 80 per cent of the recommended dose of Nitrogen (2.0-2.5 bags Urea for Basmati & 2.5-3.0 bags for non-basmati) should be applied between 30-70 days after sowing of rice. The remaining 20 % nitrogen may be applied before flowering.
8: What is a good quality rice seed?
Ans: Good quality seed is pre-requisite for high productivity. It should possess the following characteristics:
- Varietal purity
- High germination capacity and vigour
- Uniform size and bold seed
- Free from weed seeds, diseases and other inert material
Q9: Where from we can get certified rice seed?
Ans: Farmers can get certified rice seed from the following sources.
- Punjab and Sindh Seed Corporations
- Rice Research Institute (RRI), Kaka Shah Kaku and RRI, Dokri, Larkana
- Private seed companies
- Farmer can produce their own good quality seed
The private companies supply only 8-10% of the total required seed. The remaining 90% seed is produced by the farmers themselves
Q10: How can farmer produce good quality rice seed?
Ans: Farmers can produce the seed of approved rice varieties at their own farms to meet their needs. Farmers must follow the given instructions:
- Selection of field: Select a field of farm which is free from soil borne diseases.
- Isolation: For Seed purpose, different varieties should not be grown adjacent to each other to avoid out crossing. Isolation in time may be a possibility otherwise suitable space isolation could be used effectively.
- Protection from insect pests, diseases and weeds: Crop must be fully protected through cultural practices and pesticide use.
- Rouging: Removal of undesired plants from seed crop is necessary for seed purification. Best rouging time is when the crop is in full flowering stage.
- Harvesting and threshing: Normally the appropriate harvesting time ranges from 30-35 days after flowering when 85-95% panicle becomes straw coloured. Keep the harvested crop 2-3 days for drying before threshing. Do not harvest seed crop with combines to avoid admixture. Threshing floor should be kept clean during harvesting and threshing operations. After drying and cleaning, seed should be packed in bags, labeled and stored properly.
Q11: What is the seed rate and timing of nursery sowing for traditional paddy transplanting?
|Area||Variety type||Seeding time||Seed rate/acre|
|Punjab||IRRI typeBasmati type||May 20-June 7June 1- June 15||6-7 kg5-6kg|
|Lower SindhUpper Sindh||All varietiesAll varieties||April 25-June 10May 15-June 30||6-7 kg6-7 kg|
|KPK (plains)KPK (Swat etc)||All varietiesAll Varieties||May 1- May 30May 1- May 20||6-7 kg7-8 kg|
|Baluchistan||All varieties||May 15-June 30||6-7 kg|
In all parts of the country, rice crop is established by transplanting 30-35 days old nursery. To get higher yields, recommended sowing and transplanting schedule must be followed.
Q12: What are the recommended rice varieties and their area of cultivation?
Ans: There are three types of rice varieties are cultivated in Pakistan, such as Basmati type, IRRI type and Cold tolerant (bold and short grains). These varieties are area specific depending on environmental conditions.
|Area of cultivation||Varieties|
|Central Punjab Southern Punjab||Super Basmati, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Shaeen Basmati, Basmati 515, PS-2,KS-282, KSK-133, NIAB IR-9, and rice hybrids.Basmati 198, Super Basmati, PS-2, KS-434, KS-282, KSK-133, and rice hybrids|
|Upper Sindh Lower Sindh||IR-6, DR-82, DR-83, DR-92, Sada Hayat, Sarshar, Shahkar and rice hybridsIR-6, Shadab, Shua-92, Khushboo-95 and hybrids|
|Baluchistan||IR-6, DR-83, Sarshar, Sada Hayat, Shahkar and rice hybrids|
|KPK (plains)KPK (Swat area etc)||IR-6, KS-282, KSK-133, KSK-434JP-5, Kashmir Nafees, Swat-I, Swat-II, Dilrosh-97, Fakher-e- Malakund|
Q13: Are there recommended rice hybrids available and their area of cultivation?
Ans: The rice hybrids are getting popular in the country and so far 54rice hybrids belonging to different Seed Companies have been recommended by PARC Variety Evaluation Committee (VEC) for general cultivation in Sindh, Baluchistan and Southern Punjab mainly.
Q14: What is the recommended dose of fertilizers for rice crop?
|Rice varieties||Fertilizer dose (N-P-K kg/hectare)|
|Basmati type||140-80-65 (N-P-K)|
|IRRI type||150-90-70 (N-P-K)|
All Phosphorus (P) and Potash (K) and 1/3rd of the Nitrogen (N) should be applied at the time of land preparation. The remaining Nitrogen should be applied in two splits; one after 35 days of transplanting and other before flowering. The fertilizer doses can be adjusted according to level of soil fertility.
Q15: Do we need Zinc to rice crop?
Ans: Yes, all the rice soils in Pakistan are deficient in Zinc. The symptoms zinc appears after 3-4 weeks after transplanting in the shape of brown spot on leaves. To overcome this problem, apply Zinc Sulphate (33%) @ 6 kg per acre after two weeks of rice transplanting. Or enrich rice nursery with Zinc Sulphate (33%) @ 25 kg per acre of rice nursery. In this way, there is no need to apply Zinc to transplanted crop.
Q16: How can we improve rice soil health?
Ans: Rice soils have been exhausted by continuous cultivation of rice and wheat and have become deficient in organic matter. To improve physical health of soil, green manuring (with dhaincha or sunnhemp or guara or cowpeas) or inclusion of legumes in between riceand wheat crops is must. Similarly, incorporation of rice and wheat straw (instead of burning) in soil can also help in increasing rganic matter of the soil. Incorporation of farm yard manures (Cows and buffolow’s dungs and poultry feases) in to the soil improves soil health by increasing organic in the soil.
Q17: What are main diseases and how can we manage them?
Ans: The rice mainly suffers from bacterial leaf blight, blast and brown leaf spot, stem rot, kernel smut and false smut, which cause substantial losses annually. These diseases can be managed by applying integrated approach. Such as:
- Seed treatment with available seed dresser like Topsin M (70%) WP
- Planting of resistant varieties
- Using fungicides/bactericides (Copper oxychloride, Cobox etc for BLB, Difenoconazol for blast)
- Balanced fertilizer application
- Crop rotation
- Field sanitation
- Proper water management
Q18: What are major insect pests of rice and their management?
Ans: In Pakistan, major insect pests are stem borers, leaffolder and whitebacked planthopper, grass hopper, army worms, which cause 15-20 % on recurrent basis. The mealy bugs occur periodically in Sindh. The incidence of pests varies from one region to other: Leaffolder is predominant all over the rice growing areas, stem borers are predominant in Punjab and D. I. Khan areas, whitebacked planthopper in Sindh and Baluchistan and grasshoppers in Swat areas.
Farmers mainly use insecticide to control these pests. No single method can manage all the pests or even single pests under all situations. Integrated pest management (IPM) offers promise to reduce dependence on pesticides. IPM is an intelligent selection and use of pest management tactics by taking into consideration appropriate economical, ecological and sociological factors. Pests can be managed by logical integration of various tactics like use of resistant varieties, modifications of pest environment (removal of alternate food sources, timely sowing, water management (AWD) and manipulation of biodiversity in agri-matrix), conservation and utilization of bio-control agents (parasitoids, predators etc), balanced use of fertilizers and when necessary, an appropriate and timely use of insecticides. It is therefore, imperative to adopt integrated approach for the management of these pests and achieve sustainable crop production and environmental protection.
Q19: What is the appropriate time of rice harvesting and threshing?
Ans: Timely harvesting ensures optimum grain yield and quality, higher market and consumers’acceptance. Generally, the appropriate harvesting time ranges from 30-35days after flowering. This is the stage when 85-95 % of upper portion of panicle is straw coloured. Harvested crop is left 2-3 days in field for drying. Best results can be obtained only if crop is harvested in the morning and threshed in the afternoon on the same day. Threshed paddy should be cleaned properly to fetch good market price. Now a day, mostly paddy is harvested with combines in Punjab, which causes lot of damage to grains and reduces less milling recovery. Grain must be containing 20-22% moisture at the time of paddy-crop harvesting.