Beans

Samina Khalid*, Tahira Abbas*, Rashad MukhtarBalal* Muhammad Irfanullah** and Muhammad Adnan Shahid*

*Assistant Professor Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha

**Assistant Professor Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha

Beans are warm season annual legumes that fix nitrogen when established their root system.These are easy to grow and are good source of proteins, fiber, minerals and nutrients. These are grown for their immature pods, immature seeds or mature seeds. Beans are of two kinds low growing or bush beans and tall growing or pole and runners bean. The term Beans and pulses are interchangeably used for legume crops but the term beans referred to legume crops consumed in fresh state as green beans.

Types of beans:Green snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) also known as string beans, string less beans(haricot varieties),the common bean,field bean, flageolet bean, french bean, garden bean, pop bean, kidney bean and wax bean is used for its green pods.Southern cowpeas (Vignaunguiculata) also known as common cowpeas, crowder peas, black-eyed peas, and field peas, are highly nutritious plant grown for fresh, processed and dried uses.

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Fava bean (Viciafaba) has large and small seeded varieties. Large seeded varieties (broadbean or windsor beans) are cultivated as vegetables while small seeded varieties like bell, horse, tick, or field beans are commonly cultivated as animal feed, cover crop and green manures. Yardlong bean, (Vignaunguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) also called as Chinese long bean, haricot asparagus and asparagus bean is trailing plant often reaching 9-10 feet in height with 10-20 inches long pods. Lima beans, (Phaseoluslunatus) also known as butter bean and chad beans, is a nutritious vegetable high in protein, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, thiamin and niacin. Winged beans, (Psophocarpustetragonolobus), also known as the Goa bean and Asparagus pea, four-angled bean and winged pea.

Horticultural Maturity Indices: All pod beans should be harvested when the pod is bright green and fleshy and the seeds are small and green. After that period, excessive seed development reduces quality and the pod becomes pithy and tough, and loses its bright color. Beans should pick often to keep plants bearing longer. Snap beans (yellow, green and purple types) pods are harvested about 8 to 10 days after flowering when pods are almost full-sized but before seeds begin to bulge. Bush snap beans should mature in 48 to 60 days. Runner or pole beans require 58 to 70 days to mature. Lima bush beans require 65 to 80 days and pole beans required 80 to 88 days to mature.Lima bean and pigeon pea are mature to harvest when their pods are well-filled and that are beginning to lose their greenness. Cowpea, yard-long bean, snap bean and winged bean are mature to harvest when their pods are well-filled pods and that snap readily. Black-eyed pea or cowpea are picked when seeds near full sized but still bright green.

Harvest and Postharvest handling:

Beans should be harvested in the morning, do not harvest when the beans are wet.Keep produce in cooler area after harvest asbeans are harvested in unripe stage, having high metabolic activityBeans are sensitive to ethylene and chilling injury. Ethylene reduces green colour in snap beans. Sensitivity to chilling temperature varies with beans cultivars. In Lima beans rusty brown specks, spots, or areas appear on pods when stored at 1-4.5 C° however,in snap beans pitting and russeting appeared when stored at 7°C. Snap beans are susceptible to freezing injury. Beans can be damaged by direct contact with ice. Snaps beans can be hydro-cooled however, postharvest decay can occur if the product remains wet after cooling. Beans can be treated with hot water at 52°C for 0.5 minutes to control Pythiumbutleri, Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. Recommended storage conditions and potential life of different beans types are given in the table:

Recommended storage conditions for various beans types

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Commodity Temperature Relative Humidity (%) Approximate storage life
°C °F
Beans, green or snap 4-7 40-45 95 7-10 days
Beans, Lima, in pods 5-6°C 41-43 95 5 days
Chinese long bean 4-7°C 40-45 90-95 7-10 days
Haricot vert (fine beans) 4-7 40-45 95 10 days
Winged bean 10 50 90 4 weeks

Source: McGregor, 1989.

Insects and diseases:Important diseases of beans are damping off, tip blight, southern blight, bean rust, anthracnose and white mold. Corn ear worm, stink bug, European corn borer, caterpillar, beetles, whiteflies, thripsand mitesare the important insects attacking bean plant.

Refferences:

Bachmann, J., Earls, R., 2000. Postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables.Horticulture technical note.

Barkai-Golan, R. and Phillips, D.J. 1991. Postharvest treatments of fresh fruits and vegetables for decay control. Plant Disease (Nov): 1085-1089.

Harderburg, R.E., A. E. Watada, and C-Y.Wang 1986. The Commercial Storage of Fruits Vegetables. and Florist and Nursery Stocks. USDA, Agricultural Handbook No. 66.

Koske, J.T., Morgan, A.L., Ferrin, D.M., Bean, Vegetable gardening tips, Growing information for home gardeners series. Loisiana State University Agriculture Center.

Lawrence, J.H., Moore, L.M. Plant Guide Yard Long bean Vignaunguiculata (L.) Waln ssp. sesquipedalis (L.) Verdc.United States Department of Agriculture.

Myers, J.R., Colt, W.M., Swanson, M.A., Beans and peas, Grow your own. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension System, the Oregon State University Extension Service, Washington State University Cooperative extension.

McGregor, B.M. 1989. Tropical Products Transport Handbook.USDA Office of Transportation, Agricultural Handbook 668.

Rodino, A.P., Lema, M., Perez-Barbeito, M., Santalla, M., De Ron, A.M., 2007.Assessment of runner bean (Phaseoluscoccineus L.) germplasm for tolerance to low temperature during early seedling growth.Euphytica 155, 63-70.

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Sattel, R., Dick, R., McGrath, D., 1998. Fava bean (Viciafaba), Oregon State University Extension Service.http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/15226/em8697.pdf

Stephenson, R.A., 1980. The winged bean flyer.International documentation center for the winged bean.

Strang, J., 2011. Snap beans, UK cooperative extension service.University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture.

Wright, S., 2012.Southernpea (Cowpea), UK cooperative extension service. University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture.

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