Thursday, June 20, 2024

History & Development of Poultry Industry in Pakistan

Prior to 1963 the native breed “Desi” was mainly raised which produced a maximum of 73 eggs per year under local conditions. An improved breed “Lyallpur Silver Black” was evolved in 1965-66 in the department of Poultry Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The layers of this breed are capable of producing 150 egg/year and gaining 1.4 kg weight in 12 weeks of age under favorable management and feeding conditions.

Poultry in Pakistan was kept as backyard business for household needs. In early sixties the need of commercial poultry was felt which resulted in 1963, in the form of a national campaign to enhance the production of feed products in the country. Under this campaign the government announce a tax exemption policy on the income derived from poultry farming. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) in collaboration with Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms of Canada started first commercial hatchery in Karachi. Simultaneously, a commercial poultry feed mill was started by Lever Brothers (Pvt), Pakistan Ltd., at Rahim Yar Khan, which was followed by other pioneers like Arbor Acres Ltd.

Special emphasis was laid by the Government on development of poultry industry in the country during 1965-75. The Government made major policy decisions to provide all possible facilities to poultry industry in the annual development plans. The incentives provided to poultry farmers/poultry industry included.

1. Tax exemption on income derived from poultry farming.

2. Import of flock and incubators was permitted under free list.

3. Allotment of state land on lease for poultry farming at very nominal rates.

4. Established poultry research institutes at Karachi and Rawalpindi through Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to facilitate research services specifically concerning disease control programmes.

5. Two meatless days were announced to encourage poultry meat consumption.

6. Subsidy on grains to form low cost quality ration, through UNDP-grains.

7. Loan through ADBP for the construction, of poultry sheds.

8. Established directorates of Poultry Production in Karachi and Punjab to provide extension services to the poultry farmers.

9. Establishment of Federal Poultry Board to coordinate government and industry activities in the poultry business.

The subsequent development of Pakistan’s Poultry Industry can be divided into four phases

Phase 1: The Introductory Period 1965-1970.
During this period the early poultry ventures, involving risks were supported by Government policies that exempted poultry production form national tax levies and permitted producers to import genetically improved breeding stocks and equipment such as incubators. A number of catalytic forces shaped the early development of the poultry industry.

These forces included potential profits in the industry, availability of technologies and supportive government policies resulting form the perception of a protein deficiency in Pakistani diet. The government of Pakistan also established the Directorate of Poultry Production at Karachi, which provided extension services to the growing numbers of poultry farmers. The early development of the industry was also characterized by emerging problems including rising feed costs, disease outbreaks and consumer preferences for Desi birds.

Phase 2: Institutional Development 1971-1975.
As poultry production became a significant enterprise in the agricultural economy of Pakistan, the government strengthened institutions serving the new industry. The Federal Poultry Board was established to coordinate government and industry activities, in the layer and broiler business. Research services were offered through the Poultry Research Institute with the assistance of UNDP/FAO funds. The Directorate of Poultry Development was established in Punjab similar to that in Karachi. Poultry Producers struggled with the adverse effects of government programmes e.g. the ban on export of poultry products and the consequences of some major planning flaws such the establishment of poultry estates clustered together without adequate sanitation and health control. This phase is characterized by both the greatest success of the poultry industry and its greatest failure. A dramatic increase in poultry production resulted due to diverted investments form the nationalization of industries in other sectors. At the same time the clustering of production units led to large disease outbreaks and the lack of marketing facilities due to ban on export of poultry products limited industry growth.

Phase 3: The Production Boom 1976-1980.
The government of Sindh followed a policy to attract investment in poultry farming by offering estate land under ten year leases. At the same time, the nationalization of other industries contributing the entry of capital into poultry industry, particularly in the Punjab, resulted in the poultry production boom. Commercial egg production increased from 624 million eggs in 1976 to 1223 million eggs in 1980. Broiler production increased form 7.2 million birds to 17.4 million birds during the same period. The increase volume of production was forced through limited marketing channels. Serious financial setbacks to poultry farming in Pakistan culminated from discontinuation of poultry exports; disease problems; high relative prices of poultry feed; deteriorating feed quality; and limited supply of feed ingredients. Poultry farmers faced with financial problems and seeking remedial measures formed the Pakistan Poultry Association in 1979 on the advice of the Federal Poultry Board.

Phase 4: Depression and Adjustment 1981-1990.
Disease problems posed a serious threat to the sound development and consolidation of the industry. The large Karachi poultry estates began to close in 1984 and a number of poultry farms closed in other areas of Sindh. Production showed a decreased growth or even depression during early 1980 particularly of increases in the Punjab, Baluchistan and NWFP. However, in the later part of 1980’s starting form 1985 industry seemed to be readjusted with much rise in poultry number particularly in broilers. Faced with disease problems, lower productivity and numerous environmental and climatic difficulties, some of more successful farmers decided to produce under more modernized conditions and to establish their poultry farms in cooler, less polluted area of the country. Breeding farms in Karachi and Punjab thus relocated to Abbotabad, to the base of the Murree Hills and to the Valley of Quetta. The farmers also built houses with controlled environments for breeders, broilers and commercial layers.

1991 to Now:
In this period was a disaster due to diseases, in 1990 the farmers suffered a great loss due to Hydro pericardium syndrome specially the farmers of Broiler and Broiler Breeder Birds. In 1991-92 an other disease Gumboro attacked the chicks of broiler, layer and parent flock that resulted in great mortality. With the passage of time efforts to reduce the incidence of these diseases and prophylaxes regarding vaccination and bio-security were done, this also resulted in establishment of new medicine companies and the importation of vaccines form abroad started. At national level institutes like Poultry Research Institute, Veterinary Research Institute and Agriculture University Faisalabad also done efforts to reduce these diseases.

In 1995 a new disease Avian Influenza appeared in Murree and Abbotabad and mortality in parent flock rose up to 80% due to this disease and set a challenge to the scientists at national level. Conferences at the diagnosis of this disease were conducted in which scientists discussed their point of views, after great loss measures were adopted that resulted in controlling the disease. In 1996 parent flock increased in number due to absence of planning that resulted in depression in the market and the price of chicks decreased several times its cost of production. This depression in Poultry market continued in 1997 as result of ban on serving of lunch in marriage parties that reduced the demand of poultry products in the market up to 40%. Slowly in 1998 it started improving and by increase in price of chick the companies got a great profit. 1999 again a syndrome like influenza broke that cause great loss in some areas while some areas were safe. Now still there are many threats to the poultry industry the manor of which is the marketing problems of chicks to finished products, a great planning is required in this regard. At this time it is supposed that big firms like Be Be Jan can be help full to reduce the instability of the market but it may be before time.

Poultry Status in Pakistan
Pakistan 1968 1977 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Investment in commercial poultry farming sector (million Rs.) 65 915.2 1460 3600 12300 27000 36389.00

Hatcheries (Commercial)

i) Number 2 23 41 100 218 256 189.00

ii) Capacity to produce chicks (Million) 4.84 38.05 52.84 132.20 276.00 403.025 351.10

iii) Day old chicks produced (Million) 2.35 28.08 30.76 67.96 112.02 297.900 235.00

Feed mills (Commercial)

i) Number 2 17 27 51 114 147 138.00

ii) Capacity to produce feed (million ton) 0.048 0.247 0.390 0.850 2.811 2.650 2.66

iii) Poultry feed produced (million ton) 0.012 0.102 0.207 0.637 1.800 1.240 1.43

Commercial poultry farms (number)

i) Layers 202 1450 2030 3684 4687 5300 4632.00

ii) Broilers 176 725 1120 3482 7318 8125 16489.00

iii) Breeding 2 30 55 201 425 516 553.00

Capacity to maintain/ produce birds per annum

i) Layer (commercial) million nos. 0.40 4.25 7.17 10.00 15.6 24.81

ii) Broilers (commercial) million nos. 2.86 11.50 24.66 60.10 187.1 221.18

iii) Breeding stock (commercial) million 0.02 0.31 0.40 1.00 3.1 9.83

Birds maintained/ produced

i) Layers (commercial) million nos. 3.320 8.291 10.00 12.00 14.26

ii) Broilers (commercial) million nos. 8.010 45.200 74.1 230.00 192.89

iii) Breeding stock (commercial) million 0.220 0.840 1.8 3.435 5.24

Poultry products

i) Commercial eggs (million) 730 1990 2405 2880 3336.00

ii) Commercial meat 10270 49330 77235 217780 190934.53

a) Broiler (MT) 7610 42940 68930 207000 177072.90

b) Culled birds & layers (MT) 2660 6390 8305 10780 13861.63

Rural Poultry (Desi)

i) Eggs (million nos.) 1036 1575 2085 2360 5341.00

ii) Meat (metric tons) 38110 57410 74100 147190 142292.75

Total (commercial & rural poultry)

i) Birds maintained (million nos.) 45.050 101.541 146.9 323.235 292.42

ii) Eggs (million nos.) 1766 3565 4490 5240 8677.00

iii) Meat (metric tons) 48300 106740 151335 364970 333227.28

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