The population of Pakistan is increasing day by day like the other developing countries. So, the demand for food is also increasing with the increasing population in Pakistan. Now there is a big challenge for agriculture to increasing the food production per unit area. Because we have fixed land and their fertility is decreasing with time, therefore it very important to improve and maintain the land capacity to support the demand for food of the increasing population of Pakistan. In developing countries, one of the big problems, which are affecting land production, is land fragmentation.
Author: Muhammad Sufyan
Proposed by: Muhammad Yaseen, Department of Agriculture Extension, College of Agriculture, UOS, Sargodha
There is also another reason for low productivity are less information to the farmer about modern research techniques, less use of current technology and their inputs, and enhanced farming particles. All of these things are because of weak extension methods are being applied for educating farmers’ community. The main factors that enhance agricultural productivity provide the updated information to farmer related to farm practices, persuading a farmer to utilize modern technology and adoption current farming practices.
Agriculture is the largest sector of Pakistan’s economy that is based on food production and provides employment to the people of Pakistan. So, the major changes are necessary for the agriculture sector to solve the problem of low productivity of food. For this, we need the experienced and skillful farmer who is capable to increase their productivity by providing several sources like extension department training, institution research, market analysis etc. But the main fact that more than 70% of the farming community is uneducated. Hence, the extension agent has to apply appropriate and effective methods to provide the relevant information to the farmers. Agriculture research plays a key role in increasing land productivity. But in developing countries, farmers do not have enough resources that they contact researchers to tell their needs so a very limited number of farmers especially those who are financially settled and landlords can come in contact with agricultural researchers. So, there are communicators between agriculture research and the farmer community to make the research is effective and applicable to agriculture production. An agriculture extension agent performs this role.
The agriculture extension department involves helping farmers to examine problems and recognize opportunities, offering advice, supporting group formation, facilitating collective action and sharing information. But traditional extension services aimed to deliver information on modern methods and technology to increase productivity. The extension programs in most developing countries, including Pakistan, still operate from a traditional viewpoint and do not take interest in the farmers’ needs. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the agriculture extension department aims to address management and crops issues. Extension department is failing in its objective as we know that role of extension for the diffusion of new technology is like a backbone in the farmers but every time extension department is failed and moribund. Low Education and fewer training opportunities is the main reason of Failure of extension department. To change the tradition of the farmer we need properly train and educated agents in the extension department. Extension agents are failing to convey and outcomes the research information to the targeted audience due to they do not have enough education, communicative skills. We can estimate the value of extension system in Pakistan through the weak performance of agent of extension in the field. In the articles we are mainly discuss the extension condition of Baluchistan. In Pakistan, public extension agent focuses mainly on landlords and larger farmers and ignores the small farmers, as they tend to be poor, uneducated, lacking in the necessary farm implement so they are dependent on private extension services. In some circumstances, even though extension services are being provided to the farmer, the farmer does not consider it because they do not consider the farmer’s needs. So, the farmers do not rely on these services. However, Government has taken a keen interest in providing modern technology and in implementing the new research technique in the farmers’ community, which will give the maximum output to farmers. To achieve our objective, the government is making changes in the structural adjustment of the agricultural extension department. The incentives available to the extension agents is better as compare to the past but still they are doing nothing perhaps due to lack of motivation, devotion among the extension agent themselves.
Extension officers should be responsible to visit in their respective areas to ensure the delivery of the extension services in the area. We can determine the effectiveness of the extension department by the officers of extension contributing their efforts and time to provide knowledge to the farmers. About that the farmers were asked about the extension agent visit in villages but it was shocked to know from the farmers that there is no visit and meeting by the extension in their respective villages. This thing shows that the extension agents rarely perform our duties and there is on fear of the higher rank official of their department. Extension staff normally uses different method to spreads information to the farmers. Department of extension has tremendous changed in the services to provide more knowledge to the farmers. Traditional training and visit system (T&V) of extension were functional in the Pakistan areas in the past years. But with the demise of T & V system in the late 80s and less outcomes of the traditional systems, both of these systems are no more practiced in the area. But the traditional T & V system are not too much practical due to less outcomes in the areas of Pakistan. Presently, the extension department is focusing on providing trainings to the farmers through integrated Pest Management, Farmers Field School, Integrated Seed and Crop Management and other recently introduced approaches of extension. An ideal situation was presented from the extension officials.
With the passage of time, the service portfolio of extension department has also incurred changed. In the present system of extension, extension agent is regularly visiting the villages of farmer and make meeting with farmers for the feedback, and other information as compared to the past. Similarly training portfolio are also change and providing more training to the farmer about modern technology and modern research as compare to the past. Providing training on micro enterprises development to the female of the farm households was the remarkable point that are highlighted by the extension officials. When we compare the information from the extension official with the information from the field, in reality, the difference between them is like that between the sky and earth i.e., did not support any kind of situation in the area.