Saturday, May 25, 2024

Impact of exogenous application of tea seed extract and its waste products on morphological, physiological and reproduction of plants

   Erum Rashid*, Mirza Rehan Ahmed, Shahla Rashid

(University College of Agriculture University of Sargodha, Sargodha)

A number of plant extracts are being marketed demanding to improve both yield and quality and environmentally friendly. However, these claims are rarely recognized by precise data. The growth regulatory effect of Tea Seed powder (TSP), a saponin- rich waste produce from Tea seed (Camellia sp.) oil production. To manage variability of soil and environment different strategies have been applied within the agricultural and horticultural industry, high quality and high yield crops are of main commercial and economic importance. The demands for increased yield and improved quality can be met through improvements in crop genotypes by selection, breeding, and genetic engineering and by improvement of the crop growth environment through irrigation, fertilization, and the use of plant protection products. Chemical growth regulators are also one of the tools used to improve both crop growth and quality. Commercially registered growth regulators are all phytohormones and fall into the subsequent categories: gibberellins, auxins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and cytokinins. Recently, several other hormonal compounds such as brassinosteroids, oligosaccharins, salicylates, jasmonates and polyamines have also been revealed to have growth-regulating properties.

Tea is evergreen but it is mostly inactive in winters. Mechanical harvesting is done where no cheap labor is available. Tea plant extracts have been used from centuries to combat diseases, enhanced plant production/growth by the foliar application. That showed useful effect on the plant health. Camellia sinensis belongs to Theaceae family (tea family), from which green tea is made by the use of its leaves. Plant is shrub which persists throughout the year it has two cotyledons and it is an angiosperm. Southeast Asia is said to be its natural habitat, China is considered for introducing evergreen tea plant to the rest of the world. Aqueous tea compost extract application has shown positive trend in plant nutritive quality, production and crop health. Chemically tea (Camellia sinensis) plant has plenty of nutrients and plant growth regulating constituents. More than 80 percent unsaturated fatty acids are present in tea. Camellia sinensis contain more than 4000 bioactive compounds out of which 1/3 comprise of polyphenols. Alkaloids including caffeine and the bromine, amino acids, chlorophyll, carbohydrades, proteins minerals, fluoride and trace elements. Most of the polyphenols present in tea (camellia sinensis) are the flavonoids. Catechins belong to the large plant chemical group polyphenols that has many health benefits. Tea is rich in simple polyphenol mixture i-e complex polyphenols and catechins, oolong, black and green tea is also rich in ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

Soluble mineral nutrient, water soluble plant growth regulators and organic acid derived from tea applied to soil and foliar spray has positive impact the plant growth and plant root development at juvenile phases. There are distinct numbers of polyphenolic compounds which are present in tea plant (camellia sinensis) probably which act as chemical defensive mechanism against animals and birds that may harm the plant. Foliar application of tea compost has been reported to restore and increase beneficial micro-organisms in the soil that can be destroyed if chemical fungicide may be used. Beneficial micro-organisms help to combat disease, rose powdery mildew. Hydraulic conductance of stem, transpiration from leaves of cut flower and shelf (vase) life has inspected to be effected by the application of tea seed extract, thus its vaselife may be extended. Zeatin is a plant growth regulating hormone that enhances the plant growth, which is a constituent of extract of moringa leaves (MLE). Fe, Ca, K, ascorbate and amino acids are also present. Plant growth has been influenced in different ways by the plant growth promoters, endogenous concentration of plant growth regulators is adjusted and abiotic defense mechanism against stress is improved. Growth promoters thus applied foliar for optimum utilization. Biological activity of tea seed saponin comprise of insecticidal, anti-bacterial and biological harmone properties. Camellia sinensis has high quantity of mineral nutrients in different concentration i-e Cu and Ni. Germination, stem number and diseases like black and silver scurf in potato (solanum tuberosum) are intensively effected in positive way by tea compost foliar application, whereas has in-significant impact on yield and other diseases like scab, dry rot and early blight. Camellia sinensis seeds contain enormous quantity on phenolic compounds. The basic role in food quality including flavor, appearance and health promoting properties. Genetic makeup, agronomic and environmental factors are the reason for phenolic stability. a number of crops detoxification of polyamines and ammonia production, and increase in antioxidant production is observed with the application of cytokinins which is an active constituent of tea seed. There are number of growth enhancer mixture of variety of compounds, which have multiple functions in terms of simultaneously improving nutrients availability, providing insecticide and fungicidal effect, and furthermore chances of hormonal effects.


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