Mushroom is a fleshy-fungi, it’s a small umbrella like structure and has two part, cap like structure is known as PILEUS, attached by thread like structure is identified as MYCELIA. Mycelia absorb nutrient from soil. Mushroom do not need sun light for their growth. Examples of edible mushroom:
- Agaricus bisporus
- Agaricus bitorquis
- Lentinus edodes
- Tremella fusiformis
- Flammulina velutips
The Oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus), is one of the most valued mushroom due to its precise good taste, high medicinal and nutritional value. It also exhibit strong immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties due to their chemical composition. Mushrooms are a good source of vitamins, minerals and protein and are identified to have a wide range of uses both as medicine and food. Many investigations from different region of the world confirmed that the Pleurotus mushroom having highly nutrition and also contains various bioactive compounds including steroids, lectins, phenols, alkaloids, nucleotides and terpenoids , which have been isolated and identified from the fruit body, mycelium and culture broth of mushrooms are shown to have favorable biological effects.
The use of agricultural waste material is one of the recently prepared environment and water friendly agriculture strategies encouraging. Oyster mushroom farming has improved massively all over the world during the last few decades. Cultivation of Oyster mushroom can play a significant role in handling organic wastes whose discarding has become a problem .Oyster mushroom farming on sawdust of different woods and found that Pleurotus ostreatus providing the maximum produce. Sawdust is usually used and is the preferred medium at marketable scale. P.ostreatus provided maximum biological success on sawdust. Sawdust categories, softwood sawdust like cashew and mango are known to be more suitable than hardwood sawdust. In developing third world countries Malnutrition is a problem. Mushrooms with their texture, flavor, nutritional importance and additional productivity per unit area have been recognized as an outstanding food source to improve malnutrition in developing countries. Between the reasons for the quick acceptance of mushroom is its nutritive content. Mushrooms are eaten as meat substitutes and flavouring. In overall edible mushrooms are low in calories and fat, rich in vitamin C and B, contain more protein than any other food of plant source and are also a good source of mineral nutrients. Method of Cultivation of (P.ostreatus):
- Cave cultivation
- Garden & field cultivation
- Indoor cultivation
Mushroom farms can be established in cave and cultivation small tunnels are made in rocky areas. Abandoned mines can be used to grow mushroom farms.
Garden and field cultivation
In garden and field cultivation small ridges are made in fields and gardens. Spawn is covered with leaf litter to avoid moisture. The ridges should be frequently watered mushroom when appear can be picked.
Mushrooms are cultivated in small rooms. These small rooms might be constructed in such a method that they will be comparatively above ground and partly below ground. In various cases arrangement may be made to maintain precise moisture and temperature. Inside this room mushroom may be cultivated as well in small beds. The sunlight should not fall directly on the mushroom-beds but room are properly ventilated.
Factors influencing the selection of mushroom species are availability of waste materials to use as a growth medium. Not all mushrooms can be grown in the same substrate and environmental conditions. Different species have different requirements for temperature and other environmental variables.