Indian Basmati varieties originate from Pakistani Kernel

The title Kernel/Kernal’s origin is from the army colonel as the range is named after. He is Colonel Syed Mukhtar Hussain (R) of Colonel Basmati Farms Hafizabad, whose contribution to the agriculture sector thru his writing and practical farming is immense. The colonel in the Urdu language is written in only one way. But when it was once translated into English, by way of the industry, it was Kernel/Kernal Basmati. Kernel/Kernal Basmati is a quality logo of Pakistan and the shopper buddies the most productive quality rice from Pakistan, with this identify.

We sowed the Pakistani rice and have been stunned to peer one of these high quality variety of quality rice. Our experiment was once a success as the crop will get a better value than our native brands,


The different extra-long grain Basmati from Pakistan is officially named Super Basmati, but the general public in the rice business put it on the market as Super Kernel Basmati.

The linkage of Indian top export types to Kernel (Pakistani Basmati) used to be first revealed round 20 years again, on my talk over with to Kaul, an Indian rice analysis institute in Haryana, where I Was advised Haryana 19 (HBC-19) is an expansion from Kernel (Pakistani Basmati).

The crossing of Kernel (Pakistani Basmati) to India used to be a recognized reality, that happened all over the warfare.

Pakistani rice can be found within the most sensible eating places of Jammu and is served through the city’s affluent magnificence right through wedding ceremony and other family celebrations

Recently, the next article on, dated 30/09/03, documents how and when the Indian rice industry were given cling of the organic wealth of Pakistan, Kernel (Pakistani Basmati).

“CROSS-BORDER’ RICE ALL THE RAGE IN TROUBLED INDIAN KASHMIR.” “While India fees Pakistan with fomenting a surge in rebel violence in Kashmir, citizens at the Indian side of the troubled province are unanimous in their reward of 1 newcomer from across the frontier: Basmati rice. Nahar Singh, a 65-year-old farmer in Arnia, 45 kilometers (28 miles) south of the iciness capital Jammu, prefers to cultivate Pakistani Basmati because it brings in the next value than the indigenous variety.

He is not on my own. More than 1,000 farmers south of Jammu – a Hindu dominant area the place anti-Pakistan sentiment is prime make a selection to develop the aromatic rice that at the start came from across the heavily militarised de facto border.

“Out of 19,000 hectares (46,930 acres) basmati growing in spaces, greater than 3,000 hectares have Pakistani rice, mentioned Virender Kaul, a scientist on the Jammu University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology.

“The Pakistani Basmati has a greater aroma, longer grain size and is softer than native varieties, fetching higher costs in the market,” he stated Pakistani rice in Indian Kashmir has its roots in warfare.

During the two nations’ 1971 warfare, Indian troops marched into Pakistani territory and border villagers came with them to “plunder and loot,” within the phrases of a police officer here. Among the items looted had been baggage of Pakistani Basmati – which is now in high demand.

“We sowed the Pakistani rice and have been stunned to peer one of these high quality variety of quality rice. Our experiment was once a success as the crop will get a better value than our native brands,” stated Singh, the farmer.

Trader Lal Chand mentioned that the Pakistani Basmati grown here is also exported to the Gulf “the place it fetches even upper costs.” Pakistani rice can be found within the most sensible eating places of Jammu and is served through the city’s affluent magnificence right through wedding ceremony and other family celebrations”.

Unlike Pakistan, where we move into information about our varieties, Indian business helps to keep issues simple by way of bracketing all their top varieties in the traditional bracket. However, in 1998, when the British executive began a undertaking “DNA checking out of Basmati rice for purity”.

The Indian rice multinationals companies, or their business, proposed the next checklist as pure line Basmati rice.

This was once the first time any types record was once given by them.

India Pakistan
Basmati-370 Kernal
Type-3 Dehraduni
Haryana 19 (HBC 19)

The first two types of Basmati-370 and type-3 Dehraduni are understood as natural line selection sooner than partition of Pakistan, but what are the rest three?

The remaining three all originate from the Kernel Basmati of Pakistan, with different names.

This can be proven from documented Indian research on Basmati and articles from newspapers from India.

On goal I Am Not giving any additional evidence this is sourced from outside India.

Incidentally, afterwards, the Indian industry clubbed all 3 as one true line variety-Taraori (Karnal Local, HBC-19).

The affect of varieties record of Basmati and its affect at the lives of other people in Pakistan can now be gauged from the verdict taken via the European Union as given below.

In December 2003, the European Union handed a resolution giving a import accountability reduction of Euro 250/ton to only the varieties of Basmati from India and Pakistan proven in desk 1.


It has to be from the India and Pakistani explicit spaces of the Indo Gangetic Plains, which contains the Eastern Punjab, Haryana, Uttaranchal and Western Uttar Pradesh areas.


Traditional varieties (recurrently referred to as “Basmati pure line sorts” In India and Pakistan)

India Pakistan
Basmati 370 Kernal (Basmati Pakistan)
Basmati 386 Basmati 370
Type-3 (Dehradun)  
Taraori Basmati (HBC-19)  
Basmati 217  
Ranbir Basmati  

Our major export selection, Super Basmati, used to be not within the list. Irreparable harm was executed to Pakistan identify by way of this hasty answer because it gave an wrong and false message world-wide that our Super was no longer a Pure line Basmati, and even worse isn’t a Basmati in any respect.

The above European Union table must be corrected, and besides different changes, Super Basmati will have to be part of the above listing.

Basmati 370 and Dehradun Basmati is common heritage to each nations and there’s no factor over them.

However from the commercial point of view they are of no significance in EU import as their grain duration is underneath 7.0mm and the all-brown imported in Europe has a grain period greater than 7.0mm.

Ranbir Basmati, I consider is a variant/number of Basmati 370 grown within the Indian part of Kashmir, and matures round 3 weeks previous than Basmati 370.

Incidentally Pakistan has additionally a wide range by way of the name Kashmir Basmati, a mutant of Basmati 370.

Kashmir Basmati

Kashmir Basmati was once launched as a industrial variety in 1977 for Azad Kashmir and the northern spaces because it might tolerate snow-melted irrigation water. It matures round 3 weeks earlier because of its non-photoperiod sensitive characteristic.

Ranbir Basmati

It could be a captivating exercise to even examine Ranbir Basmati from India with Kashmir Basmati from Pakistan as they have got an identical characteristics and develop in shut vicinity, only being separated through the border in Kashmir.

The linkage to Pakistan, the origin of the remaining 3 Indian varieties Taraori, Basmati 386 and Basmati 217, will now be proven from printed Indian technical literature.

Taraori Basmati

“Based on key high quality traits and recognition with farmers and traders, Taraori Basmati (often referred to as Basmati 386, Karnal native, HBC-19, and Amritsari).”

Aromatic Rices

The above linkage of Basmati 386 to Taroari Basmati will also be found on page 136 of the e book “Aromatic Rices” (Oxford IBH. New Delhi, 2000).

Drs. R.K.Singh, US Singh and G.S. Khush have edited this ebook. Dr G.S. Khush is among the most eminent scientist of the world in rice breeding.

Pakistani Basmati and Taraori Basmati

Now the most important linkage of Basmati 386 to Kernel (Pakistani Basmati) and thus to Taraori Basmati of India, essentially the most prized Indian variety, was once showed from two documented assets, a write up in a FAO newsletter on Indian export, written by way of a top Indian rice scientist, and from the following reference.

The reward of Super Basmati and linkage of Basmati 386 is obvious from this paragraph of Chandigarh Agriculture Tribune August 4, 2003.

“Surinder Singh claims that Super Basmati gave a yield of 45 quintels according to hectare. This performance is even better than the PAU’s own Basmati, B-386 or B-370, which yield round 30 quintels according to hectare.

Surinder Singh says that this B-386 was once, actually, Pakistan Basmati. Farmers have been sowing this Pakistani Basmati for quite a while in large tracts in Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts.”

Basmati 386 to Kernel

The second source of the linkage of Basmati 386 to Kernel (Pakistani Basmati) is from the International Rice Commission Newsletter No. 49, a FAO newsletter of year 2000, once more a pertinent paragraph is being quoted.

From a small starting in 1978/79, when India exported 67,000 tones of Basmati rice, incomes a modest foreign currencies of Rs 3,200 million, an upward swing endured and 1997/98 witnessed the perfect quantity of Basmati rice exports with report foreign currencies earnings of Rs 16 749 million.

Superfine tong grain (6.61 mm long), a characteristic delightful aroma, additional elongation on cooking (1.eight instances) and the cushy texture of cooked rice are the standard features of Basmati rice Basmati 370 (Punjab Basmati), Karnal Local (Taroari Basmati), Type three (Dehraduni Basmati) and Basmati 217 (Pakistan Basmati) are one of the conventional types that qualify for export a few of the loads of indigenous fragrant rices available in India.

Taraori Basmati, a pure-line variety from the variety Karnal local (HBC 19) launched in Haryana, is a tall, low-yielding kind with excellent quality options.

Basmati 385 and Basmati 386

“Basmati 385 and Basmati 386, presented from Pakistan and released in Punjab, have tall plant stature and quality that is on par with Taraori Basmati”

From this routinely, all different types with names related to Basmati 386, are connected to Karnal, (Pakistan Basmati). i’m Hoping that it’s now clear that the starting place of the most prized Indian Basmati is principally Kernel Basmati, from Pakistan. It is not unusual wisdom in the Indian rice business, but clearly not being highlighted due to festival between the 2 international locations.

Basmati 385 and Super Basmati

The above Indian write usanot most effective confirm the adoption of Pakistani Basmati sorts however their reward of Basmati 385 and Super Basmati is also obvious. I believe India goes to formally record Super Basmati in their sorts record. I Like the way India is open in regards to the adoption of Basmati 385 and Super Basmati; in the same spirit, it will have to accept Kernel Basmati as the seed that laid the root in their billion greenbacks rice export business. I Admire, and envy, the way in which Indian rice commercially exploited our Basmati seed.

PK-386 (Non-Basmati),

Please be aware that the Indian Basmati 386 isn’t at all of the same as PK-386 (Non-Basmati), a banned variety by way of the government of Pakistan for cultivation.

Basmati 217

The link of Basmati 217 to Pakistan, as its starting place, came as a surprise consistent with the above FAO document. I do not need enough information to mention the rest about it at the present.

Meanwhile the Indian rice business or analysis can remedy the riddle of Basmati 217. For me the jury continues to be out on Basmati 217 and i’m Hoping to hyperlink it to its origin within the coming weeks

All the six sorts listed at the Indian aspect of the column in the European Union solution have bean discussed intimately and the trend that is forming is that the beginning of most in their indexed types in Pakistan.

European Union and Super Basmati

Now the following questions stand up in regards to the European Union choice of December 2003 of ousting Super Basmati from the record.

1. What have been the basis or standards used to form the above checklist?

“Basmati Pure Line Varieties.”

2. The timing of the resolution, December?

In trade, basically, however agriculture in particular, there is a window, the place the operation needs to be carried out or carried out like sowing, harvesting and advertising and marketing.

Our window of selling rice for Basmati rice is December, and specifically for Europe the contracts are made for the entire year.

The window was once abruptly shut on us in December. The apologetic slight opening of the window till March does no longer solve anything else.

3. Why are Basmati 386 and Taraori indexed one by one?

Both are one selection, called by way of different names, in several spaces of Punjab and Haryana in India.

4. What is Basmati 217?

Its beginning is Pakistan but the linkage to a selected selection remains to be now not clear. i’d request the Indian business or their research to get to the bottom of this factor on the earliest.

5. Why the hurry and urgency to do this sort of main alternate within the rice import regime to the EU?

The general rice sector reforms are going down in the European Union, in September, this 12 months and in keeping with the expected reforms, the above listing turns into redundant.

To make the verdict makers in Brussels realise the affect of the above discussion, I Will percentage the bottom fact of the price enhance device in Pakistan for rice farmers.

There is none in any respect. All main rice-exporting countries on the planet have some kind of value beef up system for their farmers.

In Pakistan, annually the government announces a notational enhance value, without any mechanism in position to buy the crop in case the costs fall beneath the associated fee announced.

The farmer is totally at the mercy of the elements and market forces, and besides the agronomical selections, a very powerful resolution is which variety to plant.

Price difference between varieties is exceptional at harvest occasions. Now along with the December fiasco, the most recent factor for the farmer is which number of rice to plant for the next season.

As everyone seems to be aware both India and Pakistan have bumper Basmati crops and within the coming months the have an effect on of the loss of marketplace for Pakistani Basmati rice might be felt.

Finally the core factor is image, or you could name the perception of Pakistani rice. It has been badly broken through the above choice.

Some one must resolution to the above questions, as the decision has affected the lives of tens of millions of other folks in Pakistan, within the rice trade, from the farmer to the exporter.

Finally coming back to the origin of the variability, i Feel, finally the proof given, it might be truthful to ask that, in long term, one must hyperlink and club all varieties related to Kernel (Pakistani Basmati) in any record, desk and annexure of Basmati sorts, anywhere on the earth, as follows:

Kernel Basmati (Pakistani Basmati) now additionally grown in India as (Taraori, HBC-19, Basmati 386, Amritsari Basmati and Karnal native).

The goal of this newsletter isn’t simply to turn the beginning of Indian Basmati varieties; it is a dedication to safeguard our heritage.

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