Thursday, June 13, 2024


*Muhammad Shafique Khalid,** Aman Ullah Malik,* Samina Khalid,* Omer Hafeez and *M. Amin


* PhD Scholar, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad

**Professor, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad



Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) is one of the major citrus cultivars and is extensively grown in Pakistan. It was developed by H.B. Frost at California as hybrid (F1 generation) between King and Willow leaf during 1915; released in 1935 and was introduced in sub continent during 1943-44. The first plantation in Pakistan was made at Experimental Fruit Garden of Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute Lyallpur (now University of Agriculture, Faisalabad). Since its introduction, it has flourished well under the agro-ecological conditions of Punjab, Pakistan. According to an estimate approximately 95% of the world Kinnow is being produced in Pakistan (Anonymous, 2011). The Kinnow fruit of Pakistan possesses superior taste, flavor and aroma and competes well with other citrus cultivars in qualitative and nutritive attributes as under:

KINNOW MANDARIN THE PREMIER CITRUS OF PAKISTANØ Kinnow grown in Pakistan is naturally coloured, no chemical degreening is needed.

Ø The fruit peel off very easily unlike other citrus members.

Ø Kinnow mandarin fruits have higher juice contents i.e. 53% as compared to other citrus varieties e.g. Grapefruit (48.50%), Blood Red (37.7%). Even Kinnow is juicier than Clementine mandarin.

Ø Kinnow has 18.59% more vitamin C as compared to Blood Red orange, 9.9% than Musambi and 6.65% than Grapefruit. Vitamin C protects against cancer by scavenging their causing compounds.

Ø As far as minerals contents (calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and sodium) are concerned, Kinnow possess 11.11% more calcium than Grape fruit, 14.50% than Blood Red and 16.27% than Musambi. Similarly Kinnow has 10.73% higher Magnesium contents than Grapefruit, 14.19% than Blood Red and 15.87% than Musambi. Iron contents are also 7.93% greater in Kinnow than Grapefruit, 11.47% than Blood Red and 28.30% than Musambi.

Ø Kinnow mandarin is also loaded with photochemicals like antioxidants and phenolic compounds. Almost 16.18% high phenolic compounds are present in Kinnow as compared to Blood Red.

Ø Kinnow has about 16.14%, 6.05% and 47.02% higher antioxidant activity than that of Blood Red, Hamlin and Lemon respectively. These compounds are very important due to their antiallergic, anti inflammatory, anticancer and antiviral properties

Ø Kinnow mandarin is good source of Folic acid, β-carotene etc. Folic acid is recommended before and early pregnancy for healthy babies (avoiding neural tube defects). While β-carotene is important in immune response and also acts as antioxidant.

Ø Consumption of Kinnow fruits can provide sufficient quantities of pectin in diet as juice sac walls and capillary membranes are effective source of pectin. Pectin affects several metabolic and digestive processes most important of them are its affect on glucose absorption and maintaining cholesterol levels. Dietary fiber also reduces the chances of colon cancer by absorbing carcinogen in gastrointestinal tract.


Table 1: Biochemical profile of Kinnow mandarin of Pakistan

1. Juice (%age)* 51-54

2. TSS oBrix* 09-10.3

3. Acidity (%age)* 0.55-1.0

4. Ascorbic acid (mg/100ml)* 41-53

5. Total Sugars (%age)* 7.2-7.5

6. Total phenolics compound (ppm) * 852-1059

7. Antioxidant activity (I %)* 65-73

8. Calcium (mg/100ml)+ 0.750

9. Iron (mg/100ml)+ 0.338

10. Magnesium (mg/100ml)+ 7.48

SOURCE: *Khalid and Malik (unpublished data); +Rashid, (2007);

Variation exists for different maturity stages

Table 2: Biochemical profile of other citrus varieties grown in Pakistan.

Grape fruit Blood Red Musambi

1. Juice (%age)** * 48.50 37.70 54.0

2. TSS oBrix+ 7.50 10.0 10.5

3. Acidity (%age) + 1.39 0.55 0.32

4. Ascorbic acid (mg/100ml)+ 46.39 36.38 43.45

5. Total Sugars (%age) + 5.3 5.55 8.51

6. Total phenolics compound (ppm) —- 255.0** —-

7. Antioxidant activity (I %) —- 49.1++ —-

8. Calcium (mg/100ml) + 0.602 0.562 0.542

9. Iron (mg/100ml)+ 0.287 0.268 0.188

10. Magnesium (mg/100ml)+ 6.03 5.62 5.42

SOURCE: + Rashid, (2007); ** Tounsi et al. (2010); ++Scalzo et al. (2004); ** *Ikhtiar et al. (2010)

Variation exists for different maturity stages

Table 2: Biochemical profile of citrus varieties grown in USA.

  Tangerine Clementine Navel Valencia Grapefruit Lemon
Energy Kcal 53 47 49 49 32 29
Total lipids (g) 0.31 0.15 0.15 0.30 0.10 0.30
Carbohydrates(g) 13.34 12.02 12.54 11.89 8.08 9.32
Dietary fiber (g) 1.8 1.7 2.2 2.5 1.6 0.4
β Carotene (mcg) 155 —- 87 —- 552 3
α Carotene(mcg) 101 —- 7 —- 4 1
β Crytoxanthin, (mcg) 407 —- 116 —- 6 20
Vitamin A IU(IU) 681 —- 247 230 927 22
Vitamin E (mg) 0.20 0.20 0.15 —- 0.13 0.15
Folate (mcg) 16 —- 34 39 10 11

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient database (2010)

It is clearly concluded from above facts and figures that Tangerine including Kinnow has higher energy, carbohydrates, carotenes, Vitamins, Minerals contents (Ca, Mg and Iron), Juice percentage, Phenolics compound and Antioxidant activity than other citrus varieties grown nationally and internationally. Its distinguished features like natural color, easy peel, aroma, size and good blend of TSS to acidity ratio is an asset and worth for consumer attraction and export of Kinnow from the country.


Anonymous, 2010. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture research service data base for standard reference release 23. Available at: Date of retrieval: 25 Jan 2011.

Anonymous, 2011. All about Citrus. Available at: /english/allabout/ orchards/ citrus/index.shtml. Date of retrieval: 25 Jan 2011.

Khalid, S. and Malik, A.U. Fruit quality and storability of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in relation to tree age. (Unpublished data).

Khan, I., Shah, Z., Saeed, M. and Shah, H. 2010. Phytochemical analysis of Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulata and Citrus paradise. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., Vol. 32(6). 774-780.

Rashid, A. 2007. Evaluation of organic acids and mineral contents in citrus juices. M.Sc (Hons) Thesis, National Institute of Food Science and Technology (NIFSAT), University of Agricutlure, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Scalzoa, R.L., Iannoccari, T., Summa, C., Morelli, R. and Rapisarda, P. 2004. Effect of thermal treatments on antioxidant and antiradical activity of blood orange juice. Food Chem. 85, 41–47.

Tounsi, M. S., Wannes, W. A. Ouerghemmi, I. Jegham, S. Njima, Y. B., Hamdaoui, G. Zemnib, H. and Marzouka, B. 2011. Juice components and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian Citrus varieties. J Sci Food Agric. 91: 142–151.

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