Seed is essential in time period of survival of plant species, further propagation and for food purpose. It performs the most important role within the import and export of any nation. Moreover, they’re the most efficient supply of protein starch, vitamins and minerals. Most of the legumes and cereal crop seeds are used as food in every single place the arena. Seed is the fundamental requirement of agriculture. Seed is defined in 3 ways: Botanically, it’s ripened ovule. Physiologically, seed is a miniature plant (embryo) having meals reserve (endosperm) and outer masking which is known as testa or seed coat.
Monocot and Dicots Seeds (Seeds Classification)
Agronomically, any plant or plant section which can be utilized for further propagation is known as seed e.g. sets of sugarcane.
There are two sorts of seeds, monocot and dicots. Monocots are the seed which include just one cotyledon, cotyledon is the a part of embryo that lies in the seed of a plant. Dicots are the ones which comprise two cotyledons.
Seeds Sector in Pakistan
Pakistan, being an agriculture nation still going through seed scarcity. Farmers are not able to get high quality seed on the time of sowing.
Public and personal sectors that produce seed all over the country are working in Punjab (552), Sindh (71), KPK (19), Baluchistan (7) and Gilgit-Biltistan (2).
Along with, some multinational firms also are working but unfortunately because of mismanagement seed provide is much less. Multinational seed corporations are Monsanto Pakistan agri. Tech. (Lahore), Pioneer Pakistan seed (Lahore), Syngenta Pakistan seeds (Lahore), Bayer crop science Pakistan (Karachi) and ICI Pakistan (agro chemical & seeds) (Lahore).
Pakistan ranking in seeds production
In Asia international top seed producing companies are 24 among which 21 is current in Pakistan, however simplest two companies have a breeding station and manufacturing crops.
Availability of high quality seed, timely supply and coffee price is the key towards a hit manufacturing of crop. But due to some elements farmers are facing downside referring to seed which is resulting in lowering the yield. Some of the standards to seed producing sectors are,
Seed Production Units
There is less selection of production devices in Pakistan as in line with demand. In addition, handiest two have their very own breeding and production gadget, remainder of have not. Lack of research, breeding and genetics tactics and limited assets is the key think about failure of seed generating sector.
Low yielding cultivars
Commonly seed produce through the multinational seed company having a better yielding cultivar as in comparison to the seed produce by means of native production unit.
For instance, maize hybrid of pioneer company cultivated in all places the country moderately than hybrid produce via the Public or native production unit of Pakistan. Seed yield of Pakistani manufacturing unit is much less as compared to the global.
Low seed yield and better input price is some other issue for seed sector. Poor farmers are not able to get admission to the seed at upper value. In this way, most of farmer used their own seed (produced within the farmer box or native seed).
Although, seed market are found in all over the place the rustic but maximum of them are in giant cities. Furthermore, a few of these markets aren’t easily approachable to the farmer.
Another problem regarded seed marketplace is the dealer is dishonest with farmers. Seed broker purchased seed from different local seed producing companies and promote on upper worth.
Mixing of seed
Adulteration is a chronic disease for any trade. Unfortunately, blending of seed (prime yield with lower yield), (old seed and new seed) is quite common follow in Pakistan.
Lack of seed storage
Less availability of seed storage is huge factor for seed producing sector. They have very restricted storage space having a capability of just one season seed. Some seed storage is available at rent however they’ve higher expenditure. For instance, seed garage or chilly garage for potatoes.
Law enforcement for seed laws may be very deficient. There is not any right kind take a look at and stability for seed sale and buy. Big sellers/ seed mafia start storing the seed simply earlier than the season of crop. When there’s scarcity of seed in market they start supply at top price.
Due to poverty, illiteracy and deficient efficiency of seeds within the box farmer don’t consider on seed companies. They have their own faith; they prefer their own seed quite than seed purchased on high value.
Lack of field demonstration plots
Most of the companies produce seed on their very own farm, harvest seed and packed for marketplace. There isn’t any this kind of demonstration plot for farmer.
Seed production may also be enhanced by increase within the collection of production units in every single place the rustic. The genetic possible of present seed may also be larger thru breeding techniques. We should dependable on our local produced seed instead of world firms.
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In this manner we save an enormous amount which we spent for the import of seed. There is keen wish to make stronger the seed marketplace infrastructure, controlling seed costs and save you seed from blending.
Furthermore, through the availability of seed storage facilities to the industries, in this manner they may be able to produce and retailer more seed for long duration. Seed rules must be improved and appropriate.
To convincing the farmer for native seed, box trial should be executed at farmer field. Keeping in view the above discussion seed production will also be larger and it will be a fruitful effort for Pakistan to avoid wasting an enormous quantity of seed import.