Thursday, June 13, 2024

Mango Fruit-An Overview

Ubaid ur Rehman, Mujahid Ali, Dr. Rashad M. Balal

(Horticulture, College of Agriculture, UOS)

Man or woman, child or old, each an everyone waits anxiously mangoes as summer season starts. Mango is the national fruit of subcontinent, that’s why it is also known as the king of fruits. Due to its sweetness and unique fragrance people like it heartily. The famous poet “Ameer Khusroo” gives the title of “Fakhr-e-Gulistan” to mango. Once Mughal king Bahadur Shah Zafar with Mirza Ghalib visited the mango orchard and Mirza Ghalib was looking strangely. King asked: Mirza, why are you looking so to the trees. On this Mirza said I hear from the descendant, that if the thing is yours! Then its grains will be stumped by your name. I am seeing that which one of them is stumped by my name or none. By listening this King smiled and send a gift of mango basket to Mirza Ghalib. That all reveals how much Mirza Ghalib like mango. Allama Muhammad Iqbal was also like mangoes very much. According to Mirza Ghalib mango should have two characteristics. Firstly it should be sweet and secondly in plenty. Mango like citrus rich in Vitamin C. By eating only, a bowl of mango, 100% deficiency of Vitamin C completed. Mango also has Vitamin A Which is best for skin and eyes.

There are more than 30 fruits grown in Pakistan. Mango is a major fruit of Pakistan after citrus. It is called King of Fruits. Mango Industry in many parts of the world mango requires optimal conditions like soil, climate, irrigation, cultural practices for maximum yield. Mango is a tropical fruit. The current article will provide an overview all about it and its botany, origin, verities and its average yield in Pakistan. During Multan Mango Festival more than 216 varieties were presented in 2017. In Pakistan during Ramzan, its consumption become more. Its shake is liked by all people.

Mango’s botanical name is Mangifera indica and belongs to family Anacardiaceous according to scientist its origin is continental region and sometimes called its originated from Southeast Asia. It’s than introduce time by time to the other part of the world. Its known as the king of fruits. Its national tree of Bangladesh. Mango fruit has certain benefits. Mango fruit is rich in pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoid antioxidant compound. Mando fruit protects from colon, leukemia, prostate and breast cancer. Mango peel is rich in phytonutrients. Its grown in Faisalabad, Rahim Yar Khan, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Bahawal Naggar, Mirpur Khas, Bahawal Pur, Shuja Abad, Jhang, Hyderabad, Murdan and Kalam in Pakistan. It can be grown on a wide range of soils but well-drained, deep and fertile soil most suitable. Salt-affected soil is not good. Rainfall affects the quality of the fruit. For growing, its soil pH range should be 5.5-8.5. The hot and humid climate is suitable for mango with low rainfall. The mango tree is large with spreading branches 6-15 m. Leaves are alternate along the branches sepals are small, concave and yellowish green. Petals are oblong, yellowish green with a touch of purple at base and sides. Its flowers are small 6-8mm, stamen 4-5. Fruit is drupe mean fleshy fruit with the large stone in the middle.

Its propagated both by sexually and asexually. Sexually through seed and asexually by grafting (side, inarching, veneer, tongue, and cleft). For asexual propagation, rootstock should be 18-20 inches. Scion should be 2-3.5 inches. Suitable age of nursery transplanting 1.5-2 years. Time of nursery transplant in spring (Feb-March), autumn (Sep-Oct). Time of flowering in Feb-March mango start bearing after 4-5 years. Mango full start bearing after 6-7 years. Normal bearing life of mango is 30-50 years.

Mango has different varieties; Fajri, Chaunsa, Black Chaunsa, White Chunsa, Sindhri, Gulab Khasa, Saleh Bhai, Al-Phanso, Anwar Rotal, Langra, Dusheri, Sensation, Fajri, Sarooly etc. Young plant of mango requires weekly irrigation. Mature tree in winter 15-20 days interval. Mature tree in summer 8-10 days interval and when we talk about fertilizer rate young mango tree require 10-30 kg per plant. Farmyard manure and full tree require 100kg farmyard manure. NPK 3-4 kg SSP, 2-3 kg Potassium Sulphate, and 2-3 kg urea.

In cultural practices no pruning requires. However, after harvest diseased, dry and broken branches are removed and those touching the ground. Natural fruit drop is the main indication that fruit is ready for harvest. “or” after 90-20 days. Fruit is ready for harvest. Harvesting time different in different areas. In Sindh May-June and in Punjab is mid-August. The average yield of mango in Pakistan is 40-100 kg per tree.

For mango fruit commonly used packing materials are paper wood, wood wool, polythene, paper etc. The polythene wrapping gives the excellent result. By using polythene material, fruit weight losses are less and storage life extended. Due to less exchange of air and moisture, respiration of mango fruit also reduced. Single layer tray package should be used for export. To avoid the rubbing and vibration, double layer of bulk packaging is used. By using hot water treatment natural wax of mango is reduced and light wax can be applied. Waxing reduced the ripening process by reducing respiration. Waxing is applied along with a piece of cloth. The spray of merinos in wax emulsion reduces, loss of weight and spoilage of mango. Wax emulsion containing 0-4% SOP increases the storage life of mango by 2-3 days only fruit dip in hot water and waiting with wax delay fruit rotting. For waxing fruit can be treated at 52℃ for 5 mints in 0.5g per liter fungicide and dipped in 5% concentration of wax and stored waxed fruit takes a long time to ripe to eating stage and extension of shelf life reduces the eating quality of fruit thus waxed. VHT (Vapor Heat Treatment) plants are there where there is the export of mango.

Due to hydrolysis sugar contents increases, starch respiration also increases, and acid depletes readily, high temperature causes biochemical losses. The ethylene production also rises in the mango after harvesting. To come over all above problems we do the same treatment after harvesting the mango fruit. By using low-temperature ripe mangoes can be kept at 2℃ for several weeks without appreciable further deterioration. By using modified atmosphere has resulted in the formation of off-flavor in the fruit. Although fruit can be stored at ambient temperature for three weeks in low oxygen. By using low pressure about 4-16 per square inch mango ripening can be delayed.

The insect pests of mango are fruit-fly, mango borer, caterpillar, mango scales, mango milli-bug, leave gall maker, shoat gall maker. Diseases of mango are mango malformation, mango blight, mango anthracnose, powdery mildew, stem and rot and pink disease. The main problem of the mango is the alternate bearing and fruit drop which can be managed by using regular varieties. Main reason of fruit dropping are insufficient soil moisture and soil fertility. If at the time of blooming temperature is very low 4.4℃ but above freezing 0℃ its growth cease. Development of abscission layer is another reason of fruit dropping. Pollination takes place but fertilization is incomplete and fruit are embryo less. Pest like scab and scales weaken panicle by sucking and fruit drop occur. Too much summer heat with temperature 45-49℃ in some year causea heavy drop. Deficiency of micro-nutrients also cause the frui tot drop in mango.

This is all-over about the mango plant. How we can establish it and where we should have to raise it. For the maximum production, if one can keep in mind all above information he can easily establish and managed the mango orchard and can attain the maximum yield in the Pakistan. Pakistan mangoes are unique in taste and aromas they represent more than one thousand varieties, a diversity of un matched by any other national fruit.

  • Mango
Dr. Mujahid Ali
Dr. Mujahid Ali
I am working as Assistant Horticulturist (BS-18) at Water Management Research Farm Renala Khurd, before this served as Assistant Professor (IPFP) in Horticulture at the University of Sargodha. I have completed my Ph.D. in 2018 from the Institute of Horticultural Sciences, UAF previously worked as Visiting Lecturer in Horticulture UOS, worked as Research Fellow in ACIAR project on vegetables, and worked as Teaching Assistant in Horticulture UAF. Moreover, Ph.D. IRSIP did in the NC State University, United States.

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