Asslamoalikum, all Pakistani farmers, researcher and students, we are here to offer some information on organic basmati rice farming.
Why shift to organic farming
Nowadays all over on the globe, health and environmental problems are increasing day-to-day with the indiscriminative utilization of various chemical fertilizers and chemical compounds for controlling various pest and diseases within the agriculture as the results of green revolution. Now, this inexperienced revolution is operating in a reducing trend. In reality increased productivity due the green revolution was once slowed down. In this state of affairs our best accountability is to go with natural or organic farming to save the environment and human health.
Rice and Basmati
Rice (Oryza sativa), is among the 3 maximum vital food vegetation on the planet, paperwork the staple nutrition of 2.7 billion other folks. Basmati rice is also known as king of rice and is priced for its feature long-grain, subtle aroma and delicious style. Pakistan incomes foreign currency echange by means of exporting basmati rice to other nations.
Organic farming of Basmati rice
Organic farming of basmati rice absolute best promoted through a systemic manner that mixes other actions like improving soil fertility, crop rotation and diversification, suitable irrigation, natural fertilisation, weeding, pest and disease management in addition to timely and right kind harvesting.
Basmati Rice Varieties in Pakistan
Basmati 370 (Pak Basmati), Super Basmati (Best Aroma), Basmati Pak (Kernal), 386 or 1121 basmati rice, Basmati 385, Basmati 515, Basmati 2000, Basmati 198 and Chanab Basmati.
Soil requirement for Organic Basmati rice Farming
All varieties of soils are appropriate for its cultivation. But, heavy soils with lengthy water holding capability are essentially the most appropriate for basmati rice cultivation. Better to keep away from the soils with alkaline nature. Optimum soil pH for basmati rice cultivation is 5.0 to 8.0.
Climate requirement for Organic Basmati rice Farming
Basmati rice calls for optimal temperature of 20-35 ̊ C for optimal expansion. Areas with good amount of rainfall and with low night time temperature are preferable for basmati rice cultivation.
Propagation of Basmati rice
Mainly basmati rice is propagated through transplanting through growing nursery.
The spacing of Basmati rice plantation
Spacing of 30 cm between rows and 25 cm between crops is adopted.
How to arrange land for Organic Basmati rice Farming
Before, three weeks of planting land must be ploughed enough and stored submerged in five-10 cm standing water. In this crop land preparation is done via one time ploughing and one time puddling. We have to include around 10 tonnes of organic subject or green manure in to the field after that land will have to be levelled.
It is necessary to irrigate the area/field 3 days earlier than sowing.
Seed price of Basmati rice
The required seed rate is about 6-eight kilograms according to acre.
The seed remedy of Basmati rice
Dipping the seeds in 15% saline resolution (1.5kg salt in 10 litres of water), Removing all floating seeds and rinseing and soaking the seeds in blank water for 24hours is advicible.
Seed treatment with beneficial microorganisms, apply 5g of Trichoderma and 5g Pseudomonas or 10g Pant Biogent-3 for 1kg of seed.
Transplanting of Basmati
Seedlings of three-4 weeks are needs to be transplanted in to puddled box.
All the above can be utilized as fertilizers in organic farming.
Manuring is basically accomplished via software of farmyard manure and vermicompost every at five tonnes in keeping with hectare.
Irrigation requirement for Organic Basmati rice Farming
Irrigation is essential side in rice cultivation. Always it’s better to mentain 2-5 cm of water within the field for higher expansion and yield as rice crop want submerged prerequisites. Proper drainage should be mentained. Optimum irrigated stipulations provide good nitrogen uptake and tillering.
Water Requirement for Organic Basmati Farming
Water requirement is similar to conventional rice cultivation however, the water can save by using SRI (System of rice intensification), cultivation on raise beds, DRS (Direct rice seedling).
Weed growth is minimum on this crop as it was once grown in submerged conditions. It is healthier to carry out 2-three hand weeding starting from 20 days after transplanting every at 20 days period.
Pest and disease management in Basmati crop
Pest and illnesses motive heavy losses in basmati rice cultivation. In the hot day’s neck blast and sheath blight illness is getting critical in basmati rice cultivation and inflicting substantial yield losses. Gall midge, brown plant hopper, yellow stem borer are the one of the crucial vital pests of basmati rice.
- Employing herbal enemiesby increasing the variety in cropping.
- Using bio-agents like Trichogramma japonicum and chilonis in areas with pest infection.
- Installation of pheromone traps 20@ ha each and every with 5 mg pheromone impregnate reduces the stem borer infestation.
- Bio-control brokers like Trichoderma virideand harzianum will effectively controls the blast disease of rice.
- Releasing of the egg parasites 5 – 9 occasions @ 10 adults / m2 and one release web site consistent with 100 m2, at an interval of 7 – 10 days results in 45 – 60 percent decrease in pest harm.
- Crop rotation
- Balanced vitamin
- Selecting the resistant and suitable varieties
- Spraying of natural plant based insecticides.
- Employing solarisation and flooding
- For some diseases weeding, deep ploughing and rouging works better.
Harvesting and threshing of Basmati paddy
Harvesting of Basmati Paddy
Harvesting should be undertaken once rice grains mature, delaying in harvesting reason shattering of grain and building of solar cracks which in result cause yield losses. For early and medium types 25 to 30 days after flowing is thought of as as the most efficient degree of harvesting. Whereas, it’s 35-40 days for late maturing varieties. During harvesting grain moisture content must be 20 p.c. After harvesting crop was once allowed to dry on threshing flooring after threshing grain is dried to bring down the moisture ranges under 14 percent for further storage and milling.
The yield of Basmati rice
In the early years of conversion length there will be chances of getting decrease yields as we stopped using chemical substances. However, at 4th year we can get most yields.