Physio-Biochemical and Growth Response of Grapes to Foliar Application of Glycine Betaine
Muhammad Tayab1, Rashad Mukhtar Balal1, Muhammad Adnan Shahid1, 3, Muhammad Zubair1 and Mujahid Ali2
1. Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha
2. Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
3. Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Florida, USA.
Grapes (Vitis vinifera L) belongs to the largest fruit crops in the world, It also covers a total area of 7.6 million hectares with global production about 68 million tons in 2010 (International Organization for Vine, 2012). Muccillo et al. (2017) In 2010 about 265 million hectoliters of grape wine are produced worldwide, in which 20 million only produce in Europe, in Italy (48.6 MHL) and Spain (35.3 MHL), France (45.8 MHL), world largest producing countries. In Italy area cover by about 800,000 hectares, spread evenly across the country. Khan et al. (2011) In Pakistan, grapes are mainly grown in Baluchistan and some areas of the Northwest Frontier Province, with an annual output of 122,000 tons, which have an average yield of 19 tons ha – 1 against potential of the 25 tons ha – 1. Grapes also can be grown in the central part of Punjab, where suitable varieties are available for the successful cultivation of the grapes.
Sargodha is located between the 32 ° 10 ‘north latitude and 72 ° 40’ east longitude and the average summer temperature ranging from 25 to 49 degrees Celsius and winter from 5 to 23 ° C, with an annual rainfall of 526 mm. agro-ecology depend on soil type, rain fall, vegetation, and the temperature. Sargodha district was included in the Central Mix cropping area of Punjab, Pakistan. GOP (2010) Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the earliest grown fruit crop in the world. With respect to area (75866 thousand ha) and production (67221 thousand tones) it contain first position in the world. However in Pakistan its rank occupied 10th important fruit crop. Grapes (Vitis Vinifera L.) are the perennial woody plant. its fruit are classified as berries. In grape vines Inflorescences are located mainly in the place of shoot, but rarely axillary. The color of the berry or fruit can be black, gold, pink, green, red, purple or rarely white, while flavors of berries may be , spicy and Muscat, this is depending on the variety of grape vine. Shiraishi et al. (2010) reported that The physiological function ( no of leave, leaf area , no of buds) and biochemical function (TSS, PH , amino acid ) of grapes verities are change with change the site , location, topography as well as environment.
Vines are adapted to many range of soil. However, you should avoid heavy clay soils, shallow, Sodic and poorly drained soils. The grapes need sufficient soil moisture during the growing season or from rainfall or irrigation. Recorded in his experiment the best growth and development of berry, grape requires a long warm and hot dry summers and cool rainy winters. Different type of grapes variety has different time of maturity, ripening and harvesting stage. Maturity and ripening also depend on , geo-graphic as well as agro-climatic conditions. Recorded in his experiment that foliar application of glycine betaine to rice crop under salinity condition increase the resistance against the salinity but under the normal condition substantially affects the growth of plant as compare to the control plant. Grapes are economically important fruit crop.in which physiological parameter like temperature extremes, lead to reduction in the yield and fruit quality. But Application of GB protects the plants and maintaining the yield. GB increased the photosynthetic rate of the plants. GB under normal conditions no effect on physiological parameters in plants.
Foliar application of glycine betaine increases the concentration of chlorophyll content and also protect against degradation under stress. Vine varieties tested in this study contained low concentrations of naturally occurring Glycine betaine compared to many species that accumulate this solute. Our results are similar to results of Gao et al. (2002) which found that the leaves of the grape variety “Dragon Eyes” contained a total of QACs at concentrations of approximately 1.5 mmol g FW1. Glycine betaine It is also occur naturally in very low concentrations of wine (Dubois and Dupuy 1974)
Many varieties of table grapes have different ability to tolerance the temperature, heat stress, rainfall and its distribution during the season. The best growth and development of berry, Grape requires a long warm and hot dry summers and cool rainy winters. GB has cry protective effect on enzymes and membranes. Application of GB increases ability of plant to tolerate physiological factors at high temperature. Glycine betaine (GB) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) which functions is to compatible solute in the many plant species. Some plant naturally synthesizing glycine betaine and its have an effective role in growth and development in many plant species. But some plants species are not able to synthesize this solute or synthesize this solute in very low amount. It is an effective effort to enhance the growth of plant by artificially applies the foliar application of glycine betaine.
Environmental factor like sunshine, humidity, temperature, rainfall, soil and combination of all these factors are responsible for chemical composition of grape juice. Leaves of grapes absorb glycine betaine by Foliar application. This mechanism is still not known but many glycine betaine transporters are identified in bacteria as well as in some plant species. So the foliar application of glycine betine has found to improve the physiological, biochemical. And growth response of grapes by foliar application of glycine betaine. Glycine betaine is QAC with many properties that make it attractive for use in the protection of physiological, biochemical, and growth factor. it is easily accessible, natural, non- toxic , and it’s inexpensive applications . GB can be made with conventional spray equipment are likely to be protect plants also against frost, and extreme temperatures and drought. During the growth and development of Berry, climate plays an important role in the berry maturity, ripening and also developing the physical and biochemical and growth characteristics of the quality of berries such as size, color, and aroma as well as taste.