Production technology of grapes
Urdu Name Angoor
English Name Grapes
Botanical Name : Vitis vinifera cultivars
Plant Type: Deciduous
Growth Habit: Upright, requires support
Growth Rate: Fast
Its crop require long, heat, dry summers and cool winters for easiest development, required temprature is 15 to 42 centigrad
Selection of soil
Gravelly sands to heavy clays, from shallow to deep . However,poorly or mild tired or extremely alkaline soils will have to be have shyed away from.
Grapes Prouning to cuttings
In iciness prouning of grapes season has staered. We can made the chopping of this grapes wain. One-year outdated wood will have to be pruned and made the cutting
Cutting step are given bellow
First of all when cutting season has began Grapes wain remove put in water tank for 2 to a few houres (for this purpes the skin of wine remains save another way wines can dry particularly damegs of node)
During winter season when wines are pruned chopping size shuld be 30 -40 cm long . A reducing should be spherical cut at proximal finish (root side) and a slanting cut on the distal finish (shoot aspect) . vine age shuld be three hundred and sixty five days for reducing. Thickness Cuttin of grapes wine like determine to thumb
3.These cuttings are bundled. There are 50 to 70 cuttings in a single package. These chopping bundles have installed fertile soil for two to a few weaks. After that cultivate it in the black polythen bages.
Others strategies of propagation are layering and grafting. But slicing propegation methed is seccessfull than layering and grafting.
Meathod of plating
Whole measurement = Length 1.five toes to 2feet
After dig the whole left it for 4 to six days for the passing of daylight
After 6 days sprouting grapes can transplnt. Fill this entire 1:1:1 FYM, sand, complete soil respectvally and irrigate it
Mostly graps are cultivate in early spring season
Row to Row distance = nine toes
Plant to Plant distance = 8 ft
No of plant in keeping with acre = 260 to 435
In business orchards of grapes five kg of FYM consistent with plants for excellent manufacturing and Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium fertilizer should be applied all the way through iciness or early spring to maintain the plants.
Irrigation during flowering and ripening is not advised as it will extend ripening, reduces berry dimension and increases shedding. Recmanded water 2 time every week in summer, in wintry weather one time per week.
Weed control via manually, chamically, machanically
Training and Pruning
Pruning provides the vines correct shape and a dimension which facilitates insect and illness keep watch over.
Method of coaching , pruning given bellow
1.Head System(major stem is skilled immediately upward) this system is doing seccessfully in pakistan.
2. Cane System(4-6 fruit trunks are raised)
3. Cordon System (main trunk is two.5 – 3.five m long and educated horizontally)
Varities in pakistan
Important varities of grapes are given below.
- Thompson (Seedless)
- Perlette (Seedless)
- Red Globe (Seeded)
- Cardinal (Seeded)
- Kings ruby (Seedless)
- Narc black (Seeded)
- Crimson (Seedless)
- Flame (Seedless)
- Sultana (Seedless)
- Muscatil (Seeded)
These 10 varities of grapes can develop mostly all pakistan area excluding balochistan.
a Variety Of kinds of grapes are grown Balochistan given bellow
The most renowned are, Haita,Kishmishi. Shundokhani, Sahibi and Shekhali are often grown well-liked business types in Quetta, Pishin,Killa Abdullah, Mastung, Kalat, Loralai and Zhob districts.
In Potohar area was once one of the most decided on areas where scientists recommended sorts like ‘flame seedless’, King’s Ruby’, Perlett and NARC black.
Insects Pest And Diseases:
The grape leaf hopper: It is the typical insect pest feed on the vines from the time leaves apear within the spring until they drop in the fall. Spray of pesticide
Powdery mildew is a fungul disease prevalent on grapes. Any portion of plant comparable to leaves, blossom, fruit and younger shoots could also be affected. White patches look could also be famous on leaves young shoots; blossom fail to set fruit. Control fungicid spray as metalyxal and mencozeb 100gm in 50 liter water
Root knot caused by a gall-forming nematode might develop into a problem in sandy and sandy loam soil, resulting in adecline in vine vigor and aid in yields To control it use resistant rootstocks and fumigate the soil.
Analysis Of Grapes Orchard Per Acre input
|Sr no||Atom name||Cost of atom||Total Atom||Total input|
|1||No of plants||50 Rs per plant||400×50||20000|
|2||No of road||300 per||150×400||56000|
|3||Iron cable||180 per kg||80 Kg ×180||14400|
Analysis Of Grapes Orchard Per Acre out put
|Mature grapes prodection||Total grapes plant||Total weight in kg||Cost per kg||Total|
|15to20kg per plant||400×20400×15||80006000||8000×1006000×100||800000max600000mni|