Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Angiosperms; Eudicots Order: Caryophyllales
Quinoa (C.quinoa) is an rising and innovatory crop in Pakistan. It can turn out to be crucial agricultural crop which give selection of nutrients and different meals merchandise for the intake of human being. First time quinoa used to be introduced in our local prerequisites by the USDA in 2008.
Quinoa (C.quinoa) is basically local to Andean region of Northwestern and South America. This crop is domesticated and grow 3000-4000 years ago in the basin of Lak Titicaca, Peru and the Bolivia.
Quinoa (C.quinoa) does not belong to the circle of relatives of cereals and grasses it regarded as as a pseudo cereals. It regarded as as a poaceae circle of relatives because of the high content material of starch in this crop however in the sense of its botany it is not as such. Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant can grow as much as the 3m and display proof against the drought and frost situation.
Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant have principally very fibrous root device. When root device fully evolved then its structured as taproot which is branching as secondary roots. It can cross deep into the soil as much as 1.8m relying on the weather stipulations.
Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant have tough with scaly stem which is radish in color. Stem of quinoa is in truth cylindrical in form. Color and thickness is dependent upon the range. Diameter of the stem can also be 1-eight inches. Color of the stem can exchange from greenish to purple, it can be trade sometimes in crimson tones.
The leaves of quinoa (C.quinoa) plant are stalked and compound which is inexperienced in color and trade to the stem. At maturity it tuned in yellow to red in color which is relies on the variety kind. Here in quinoa two sorts of go away are provide: rhomboid leaves are present at the best and lanceolate leaves which is provide around the inflorescence of plant. The edges of the leaves are serrated and smooth both type is provide.
Flower and Inflorescence:
The stem of each and every quinoa (C.quinoa) plant leads to an inflorescence. Which is known as panicle or raceme. Each panicle has a more evolved central axis and a few secondary and tertiary branches. The period of the inflorescence levels from 30-80 cm and the diameter five-30 cm respectively. A single panicle can undergo 100-3000 achenes. Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant bears hermaphrodite vegetation which is 3mm in size. Quinoa plant flower are incomplete which is sessile and have no petals.
Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant bears numbers of dry fruit achenes which is cylindrical lenticular in form. Quinoa (C.quinoa) fruit are other in colour: white, brown, red and red.
Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant are very nutritious. Its dietary profile coocked quinoa contains about water 71% and 13% 21.3% carbohydrates. High amount of protein also presents which is about four.4%, which is upper in high quality and quantity than any other more or less cereal. Fat content material about 1.92% additionally provide in the quinoa plant. It contains important quantity of soluble fiber which act as detoxifying agent and is helping to gets rid of the wastes from the frame. It additionally has choice of amino acid like lysine and Sulphur and it even have omega (3,6 and nine) in proper optimal quantity. In addition, fruit of quinoa plant additionally contain Ca, Mg, P, okay, Mn and vitamin A and E in compatible quantity to the requirement of human being. Below desk accommodates the all information relating to vitamins present in the quinoa.
Nutrition information of 100g of Quinoa cooked plant
Carbohydrates are provide 21% which is comparable with different main cereals like barley and rice. Out of this total content material of carbohydrates 83% carbohydrates are found in starch shape. And rest percentage consist on fiber and small portion of sugar comparable to ribose, galactose and maltose. Cooked quinoa plant is very good source of fiber 2.eight%, beating the each rice and maize that have fiber content 1.eight and 2.4 percent respectively. 10% fiber is provide on dry weight bases in cooked quinoa and large amount 80-90% of this fiber is present in insoluble fibers shape. Cooked quinoa comprise 2% protein which is basically composed of linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid.
Climatic, soil and others Requirement
Quinoa plant extensively adopted to the climatic conditions. It can also be grown at the coastal area to over 4000 m altitude or near the equator in Andes spaces. Depending at the variety, cool weather stipulations are optimum for growing of quinoa plant. Maximum and minimum temperature through which quinoa plant can with stand is 35°C and -four°C respectively. The optimum temperature vary for its cultivation is 12-20°C. Some new cultivar can resist in low temperature with none roughly damage. Quinoa plant can withstand to the drought and frost condition. Rainfall requirement of Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant are variable between 300-1000 mm among different sorts of crop.
Quinoa crop most importantly can grow on saline soil and here in Pakistan everyone knows that our 1/third cultivated soils are salt effected. Quinoa (C.quinoa) crop plant can also be cultivated on the upper hilly areas like Hunza valley and lower plains like Bahawalpur. Luckily Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant acclimatize to the Pakistan conditions and its rising season in Pakistan is October-March. Its manufacturing is steadily expanding since its introduction in our native stipulations. Quinoa can tolerate soil pH levels from 6-8.five. It can grow successively at 44-88% relative humidity. This crop has very low fertilizer requirement for a hit crop production and irrigation requirement of quinoa crop is most effective three-four irrigations.
From one hectare of quinoa box we will be able to get 2.five lots of seed. Furthermore, eight heaps of bio-mass which can be utilized as fodder, vegetable or as a biofuel in the house. We can get 200g quinoa seed from a unmarried panicle. Now a days one kg of quinoa seed is 600 PK rupees. Now a days Pakistan exporting quinoa seed and generate revenue.
Because quinoa plant is terribly wealthy in minerals other plant compounds, it makes the quinoa a very powerful plant for human vitamin. By addition of quinoa in diet we will triumph over the issue of low blood sugar, ldl cholesterol and triglycerides level. It also is helping to reduce the body weight because quinoa has high protein and fiber content material and has rather low value of glycemic index.
Quinoa (C.quinoa) crop plant seed has miscellaneous well being advantages. Its grains are grounded and used as a flour. Its grain also used to make biscuits, sauces, pasta, bread, juices and muffins. In the western countries it is also as popped identical to popcorn. Quinoa plant have saponins which is used for making insecticides, detergents, shampoo, toothpaste and beer. It could also be used as a salad. It may be used for change wheat and rice in local candy dishes like halwa and kheer.
In current scenario of water and climatic stipulations I suggest this crop must be given a place in our cropping scheme to get most go back. Government and scientist should pay more attention to this crop so that we will be able to overcome the issue of food security. The Government of Pakistan will have to give some kind of incentives to small land keeping farmers to adopt this crop and will have to start awareness campaign to educate the farmers . This crop must be particularly grown on that soils which is effected by the salts.