Monday, July 22, 2024

Report on the “Hot water treatment facility” at Durrani Associates


(4th Year plant protection, Department of Agriculture & Agribusiness Management, University of Karachi)

Abstract: Pakistani mangoes have high export potential, particularly in neighboring markets of Iran and China and Golf countries. However, market access is conditional with hot water (HW) Phytosanitary treatment protocol for disinfestations of fruit fly as agreed with both countries (Iran: HW dip at 45°C for 75 min; China: HW dip at 48°C for 60 min). Objectives of present survey to Durrani Associate to evaluate Hot water treatment facility and found that the facility as per required by the USDA (Standards) the mango must treat by 48C for 60 minutes the Hot water treatment plant at Durrani Associate is 70m in length, 2m in width and 1.5m in height. Its effective to kill the eggs and larvae of fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Bactrocera zonata Thrips palmi) and other bacteria and the organisms which cause the post harvest losses (Aspidiotus destructor Coccus viridis Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Parasaissetia nigra Rastrococcus iceryoides Sternochetus mangiferae) which is the requirement of the importing country and Pakistan will also willing to unlock some new destination including Australia to achieve this goal SPS standard must strictly regulate all around the country.

Key words: Mango, Quarantine, Hot water treatment, Phytosanitary

(1) Introduction:

Report on the “Hot water treatment facility” at Durrani AssociatesMango (Mangifera indica L Family Anacardiaceae) commonly known as “King of fruits”. Mango is considered as fruit of excellence and thus has prominent position among commercial fruit grown in Pakistan. Mango plays an important role in the diet of human being by providing about 64-86 calories energy. Pakistan produces over 150 varieties of mango among them are Chaunsa and Sindhri that have great potential for finding buyers in the US and EU markets. Pakistan is the third largest producer of mangoes in the world and produces world’s finest quality of mangoes. In spite of these destinations Pakistani mangoes have high potential to get access in the other markets of Australia, USA and other countries how ever market access is conditional with the hot water treatment (HWT) and Phytosanitary protocols must followed for disinfestations of fruit fly (HW 48 C for 60 minutes). In Pakistan various HWT plants are working in public sector or by the facility center of Govt. Pakistan to unlock the new destinations world widely providing the Phytosanitary requirements. For this purpose department of plant protection conduct inspection surveys to the facilities of private and public sector in different occasion during the process of mangoes for export to issue the Phytosanitary certificate if the facility and processing unit meet to the Phytosanitary requirements of importing country.

A field survey conducted by the department of plant protection to evaluate the Phytosanitary measure, the processing unit and the Hot water treatment facility execute by the Durrani Associates, either the facility meet with the SPS status or not. The survey carried out at the facility site of the Durrani Associates where the (HWT) facility and the processing methods including grading, packaging, ethylene treatment, storage structures was observed and also demonstrated by the facilitator and A.Q Durrani him self.

(2) Methodology:

The survey was carried out by the demonstration and practical observation of the HWT of mangoes and its packaging and cold storage facilities.

According to the demonstrator, one of the greatest achievements of Durrani Associates is that they have found a breakthrough in the hot water and wax treatment of mango that enhances the shelf life of the product by as much as 35 days. This is a feat that others are still trying to achieve, And Durrani Associates can now capitalize on this attained competitive advantage by exporting processed mango by sea freight instead of air freight and keep the product fresh for 35 days fulfilling all SPS requirements in Europe, US, Middle East, China and the Far East and also willing to unlock more destinations to market their products including the Australia which have more critical SPS requirements.

He further demonstrated that, their Cold Treatment Facility Designed according to International Quarantine needs and instructions. Automated Potato processing unit is one of its only kinds of facility available in Pakistan. He added that their processed tomato can remain farm fresh more then 8 weeks and Persimmons processing unit one of the only processing unit in Pakistan.

(2.1) Processing unit and structures under observation

(a) Hot water treatment plant of mangoes:

As per required by the USDA (Standards) the mango must treat by 48C for 60 minutes the Hot water treatment plant at Durrani Associate is 70m in length, 2m in width and 1.5m in height.

Processing can be briefly divided in the following steps:

I) Initial Grading

At this stage the mangoes from the different certified orchards and the worker chose the fine disease free injury free and scalp free mangoes to enter into the processing unit. Initial grading is done by manually according to the physical appearance and collects the defected fruit by hand.

II) Initial washing

Mangoes after the initial grading let inside the washing tank of the HWT processing unit where the mangoes washed with the help of hot water about 45-48C with chlorine 200ppm for neutralization of the pesticides and get off the dirt and unwanted materials from the surface of the fruit.

III) 48C hot water treatment tank

This step is more impotent step of the HWT processing of mangoes in white the mangoes pass through the 48C Hot water for 60 minutes, while the pulp temperature must range from 46.1C – 46.6C. This activity kills the larvae and eggs of fruit flies and the bacteria.

Some are enlisted below:

1. Aspidiotus destructor

2. Bactrocera dorsalis

3. Bactrocera zonata

4. Coccus viridis

5. Dysmicoccus neobrevipes

6. Parasaissetia nigra

7. Rastrococcus iceryoides

8. Sternochetus mangiferae

9. Thrips palmi

IV) Waxing tank

After the treatment of mango with 48C water it is found that the shelf life of the mango decreases due to the rate of respiration increase. To prevent this loses and decrease the rat of dehydration waxing the treated mangoes in the waxing tank and the fruit get shine and glowing skin it will also increase the market value. In the waxing tank the pores of mangoes also semi sealed with wax.

V) Air dryer

Before go in for the packaging the mangoes must dry which were wet due to the waxing process. In this tank the air dryers are set up to dry the mangoes.

(b) Packaging:

After the HWT the next step is packaging during the inspection it is found that there is paper cartons of different sizes use for the packing of mangoes according to the sizes and tagging of the brand name also done at this stage for better representation and company promotion. The packaging cartons are 2kg, 5kg, 8kg, and 10kg

(c) Cooling of mango and Storage:

After the packaging the mangoes are let to cool at the room temperature for 2 hours. The infrastructure for cooling purpose in Durrani Associates is rectangular room like structure and the walls are seal with thermopol sheets and the aluminum foil to make it an insulating structure where the temperature can maintain and avoid the escaping of cooling. After the cooling the mangoes then transferred to the cold storage at 11-12C temperature.

(3) Results & Recommendation:

As the above report is representing the struggle of the Pvt Farm and the department of plant protection to unlock the destination to trade more mangoes to international market but the hurdle is fruit fly infestation. To get rid of this problem the HWT and the VHT hot forced air room is recommended universally including USA, UK, Australia, and China. During this survey it is found that the HWT treatment is more reliable and suitable for the exporters of the Pakistan. It’s so convenient to handle and get the better result and earn the handsome income by exporting these treated mangoes to the world market. A spoke man during the survey said that “we never let a mango exit from our premises with out treatment, and neither face any consignment reject from any destination”. On the other hand Pakistan is likely to suffer appallingly huge losses in the export of mangoes to Dubai and London this year. Till June 21, a total of 28, 700 tons of mango has been exported to different world markets of which due to being sub-standard, exporters have suffered a loss of $3 million whereas in UK 50 tons of mango has been destroyed due to the presence of fruit fly resulting in a loss of 1.5 lace this can be over come by proper inspection from field level to the departure of the consignment. And plant protection department strictly regulate the SPS standard from field level, processing level and then transportation. And every exporter must have the USDA standard HWT facility and regularly inspection carried out the facility and processing unit as done in Durrani Associate.

(4) Summary and Conclusion:

Pakistan has great potential to produce high quality mangoes and have near by destination to export and earn the foreign exchange particularly the neighboring countries china, Iran, Golf Countries but HWT is prerequisite to access that market. The present report the facility of private farm that meet the SPS standard and working facility having good results and got access to the international market and have good feed back, and this facility is registered by the several NPPOs of the words and also by the USDA. And here I must conclude this report by this line that we must improve our growing techniques, harvesting techniques, processing techniques and regulate the Phytosanitary measures from the field levels to the ports.

(5) References:




(6) Abbreviations


Hot water treatment


Vapor heat treatment


United state department of Agriculture


Sanitary and Phytosanitary standards


National plant protection


Hot water

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