Thursday, June 13, 2024

Salient Features of Jamun Cultivation

Fruit is the oldest form of food known to man. In ancient literature, there is much more reference to the fruits. According to the Holy Quran, fruits like figs, dates, grapes, pomegranates, and olives are gifts. The dried and fresh fruits are the natural food of man. This natural food is called staple food. They contain many essential nutrients in enormous quantities. Consumption of quality nutrients is very important for growth and good health. A man has the quality of judging and feeling to see things that are beneficial for us, for all other living beings. Allah has more blessings on us. Being a human being, among all other creatures, the human is a good creature of God. This creature is called “ASHRAF-UL-MAKHLUKAT”.

It is a worldwide phenomenon that a living organism feeds on another living organism. People will always enjoy good health that subsists in this natural diet. Furthermore, both fresh and dried fruit are not only a staple food but also a good medicine. In several verses, the Holy Quran is one of the reference books that describes the importance of fruit plants used for different purposes. Several verses of the Holy Quran speak of fruits in Paradise, including; fig, pomegranate, grapes, olive, banana, and date. What is mentioned in the Holy Quran and what have been the scientists reached over time, since the Holy Quran is logically governed? However, for many things, we do not know the reasons of the Qur’an, we consider it only as the basis.

For the soft movement of the digestive system, the fiber is very essential that is found in the fruits. Some fruits provide energy to the body because they contain carbohydrates and carbohydrates are the main source of energy.               The fruits have 90-95% of water, which is an important nutrient. Basically, fruits give us a healthy lifestyle in the form of fibers, carbohydrates and micronutrients that help our body function properly. Compared to sugar or sweets, the fruits give more energy, as they contain fructose and natural glucose. Fruits also contain vitamins and minerals that are also very essential for a good and healthy life. Fresh fruit can be used in juices, desserts and delicious desserts. The fruits are easily cooked and digested. In their daily food, there are some healthy and popular fruits that can be consumed like banana, apple, mango, grapefruit, orange, guava, strawberry, papaya, sweet lime, watermelon, melon and jamun, etc. Jamun (Syzygium cumini) is a tropical leaf and dense perennial fruit belonging to the myrtaceae family. Common names for Jamun are Java plum, Black plum, Jambu and Jambolana. It is native to India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Recently, Jaman has achieved an importance as a horticultural crop in the arid area due to its high yield potential and resistant nature. The fruit of jamun has considerable nutritional value. Jamun is a reliable source of iron. It also has proteins, minerals, sugar and pigments, etc. The fruit of jamun has a great medicinal value that controls many diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, kidney stones and polyurea, etc. The maximum number of jamun trees is spread in Pakistan throughout the tropical zone as well as in the subtropical areas and have not yet designed the orchards.              

In a wide range of soil, jamun plant can be grown. However, deep and well-drained soils are recommended for high yield potential. These types of soil also maintain a large amount of moisture, which is best for optimal growth and good fruiting. Jamun can also grow well even under salinity and flood conditions. So, it’s not an economical way to grow jamun on very light, sandy and heavy soils. In tropical and subtropical climates, jamun cultivation is preferred. It can also be grown in lower areas (up to an altitude of 1300 meters) of the Himalayas. At the time of fruit regulation and height, a dry climate is required for the growth of jamun. In subtropical areas, the correct development of its taste, size and color and for the ripening of the fruits, the early rain is beneficial for growth.              

The Eugenia genus is composed of 1,000 species of evergreen trees and shrubs, most of tropical origin. Some of the old-world Eugenia species are now included in the Syzygium genus. It belongs to the myrtaceae family. Many of these species produce edible fruits and some of them have an ornamental and medicinal value. A wild species S. frniticosum with small edible fruits is cultivated as windbreaks. The large evergreen tree has small dark purple fruits with prominent elongated seeds. The fruit is astringent (causing contraction of the body tissue) even when it is mature. A popular fruit is the pink apple or the Gulab-jamun (S. jambos). It is found in southern India and western Bengal. The tree is very ornamental. The fruit is yellow in color, generally tasteless and has a high pectin content               There are lot decent cultivars of jamun having charming characters. A small tree with edible fruits, S. malaccensis (Malay pink apple) found in southern India and S. zeylanica is found in the Western Ghats. And another related fruit found in southern India is the cherry of Suriname (S. uniflora). This small tree is full of aromatic red fruits. In West Bengal and southern India, there is also S. javanicum (water apple). To resist the attack of termites, S. densiflora is used as a scheme in jamun (S. cumini). Under cultivation, there is no specific variety of this fruit. Under the conditions of northern India, the common variety “Ram Jamun” is cultivated. This Ram Jamun variety produces oblong, large, dark violet or bluish black fruits in the full ripening phase. The size of the stone of this variety is small. The fruit ripens in June-July and in both rural and urban markets, the fruits of this variety are common.               Jamun propagation is performed with both methods, such as seed sowing and the vegetative method. Because of the existence of polyembryony, through the seed, it becomes a reality for their parents because there is a polembrian existence. Although the vegetative methods, seed propagation is still preferred and in most cases, has had some success. However, due to the results of the late bearing, seed propagation is not preferred. Latency is not present in the jamun seeds. The seeds for sowing will be fresh and healthy. After 10 or 15 days, the germination will take place. To transplant the seedlings are ready, which can be used as rootstocks in the following monsoons (from August to September) or in spring (from February to March).              

The flowering occurs in populations of seedlings of a year, which have a thickness of 10 -14 mm. The epidemic takes place in July and August, in conditions of little precipitation it will be very effective. The success of budding is demonstrated by Forket and by the methods of the patch and the grass shield. In the middle, the possibility of a better success in the forkert method with respect to the bud shield or “T” has been reported. Jamun can also be widespread inorching. About 60% of the air layers are obtained with 500 ppm of IBA in lanolin paste, provided that the air layers are produced in spring and not in the rainy season. Under intermittent fog, cuttings are obtained in jamun for better rooting. The 20-25 cm long cuts will be taken and treated with 2000 ppm of IBA (butyric indolico acid) and, therefore, the result will be better.Jamun is an evergreen tree and can be planted both in spring and in the monsoon season. Before planting, the field must be plowed and cleaned properly. The holes are dug at a distance of 10 m with a depth of 1x1x1 m.              

The wells should be filled with 75% earth and the remaining 25% well rotten. Approximately 19 kg of manure and 75 kg tree-bearing trees are considered an annual dose during the pre-stimulation period. Normally, the seedlings of the jamun plant begin to develop after 8 or 10 years, while they transplant or flower after 6-7 years of sowing. When the plant shows such a shortage of the required amount of manure and fertilizers that should not be provided, irrigation should be administered in moderation and resistance in September-October and again in February-March.               The application of fertilizers helps the flowering, the formation of the bud of the fruit and the configuration of the fruit. Sometimes, this application of fertilizers and fertilizers may not be effective and there may also be more drastic treatments, such as buzzing and root pruning. A fruit producer should be advised when applying fertilizer and fertilizer to jamun trees and must adjust the dosage based on fruiting and tree growth.              

Jamun trees require frequent irrigation in the initial stages. When the trees are established, the irrigation interval will be 8 to 10 irrigations in a year. In autumn and winter, occasional watering will be applied when the soil is dry. The vegetables are planted as a consociation during the first years of sowing. Regular pruning of the jamun shaft is not necessary. However, in the last few years, crossed branches and dry branches must be eliminated. During plant training, the branches can grow above 60-100 cm above ground level.              

Jamun’s parasites are whiteflies and caterpillar that eat leaves. The whitefly can be controlled by removing all the diseased fruit and destroying it, improving the hygienic conditions around the plant, while the leaves caterpillars can be controlled by spraying 0.1% Malathion or by spraying Rogor 30 EC. In other pests, squirrels and birds like crows and parrots. These pests can be scared by throwing stones or hitting the drums. And of the diseases, the anthracnose attacks the jamun fruit. Bordeaux mixture at a concentration of 4: 4: 50 and 0.2% Dithane Z-78 Spray will control this disease. The ripe fruits will be hand-picked by themselves with shoulder bags climbing up the tree. Care must be taken to avoid damage to the fruit. The average yield is around 80-100 kg per year.              

Jamun is highly perishable in nature. More than 3-4 days, Jamun cannot be stored under normal conditions. Pre-refrigerated fruits packed in polyethylene bags can be stored for 3 weeks at a relative humidity of 85-90% at a temperature of 8-10 °C. The fruit is packaged and sent to the market almost every day. The ripe and healthy fruits are selected for marketing. The sick, damaged and immature fruits should be removed. These selected fruits must be packaged in wooden baskets and sent to the market. By applying the above-mentioned recommendations, we can not only improve our yield and quality but also its shelf life.  


Dr. Zahoor Hussain, Ishfaq Hussain, Mujahid Ali 

(Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha

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