Pesticide can be in terms as; Active ingredient (a.i.), Emulsion, Fumigant, Impregnates, Pheromones, Phytotoxicity, Solution and Suspension. And the pesticide formulation may consist of:
- The pesticide active ingredient (a.i.) that controls the target pest
- The carrier, such as an organic solvent or mineral clay
- Surface-active ingredients, such as stickers and spreaders; and/or
- Other ingredients, such as stabilizers, dyes, and chemicals that improve or enhance pesticidal activity
What is a Formulation?
Pesticides are available in various “formulations”. A formulation is simply the form of a specific product that you use. Some insecticide formulations include dusts, gels, granules, liquids, aerosols, wettable powders, concentrates, and pre-mixed solutions.
Some researchers have demonstrated that essential oils have neurotoxic, citotoxic, phototoxic and mutagenic action among others in different organism, and the essential oils act at multiple levels in the insects, so the possibility of generating resistance is little probable
A pesticide formulation typically consists of an active ingredient, plus several inactive materials called adjuvants, or additives. The main purpose of additives is to increase the effectiveness of the active ingredient. Some common additives include spreaders, stickers, wetting agents, compatibility agents, and foaming agents.
How to Choose a Formulation
Any given active ingredient can often be purchased in more than one formulation. Same active ingredient for different products. The reason for this is that different formulations of the same active ingredient behave differently.
Knowing the characteristics of a given formulation will help you to choose the right product for your needs and use that product more effectively. Here are some points to consider when choosing a formulation. This information can usually be found on the product label are; Percent of active ingredient, Ease in handling and mixing, Personal safety risk, Type of environment (agriculture, forest, urban, etc.), Effectiveness against the pest, Habits of the target pest, the crop to be protected, type of application equipment or machinery, danger of drift or runoff, possible injury to crop and Cost.
Generally the results indicated that using of natural extract is the best choice for organic agric. production. In specific emphasis essential oil as a pesticide in vegetable disease is future conceptual preferable method of control; this because essential oils are: non residual effect component, quickly evaporate naturally, non toxic materials for human and animals whatever it used immediately, can acts as a healthy natural component for human disease treatment, it is a preferable one for vegetables because it is an edible and appreciable crop, easiness of preparation, it can be locally adapted technology even in rural areas, easiness of application, cheapest method, effective naturally method and environment friend components (green environment).
Over 2000 species of plants are known to possess some insecticidal activities. The essential oils are natural, volatile and complex compounds that gives their characteristic odours and they are formed as secondary metabolites in plants. In the nature those compounds plays an important role in the protection of the plants against bacteria, fungi, virus, insects and others herbivores.
Some researchers have demonstrated that essential oils have neurotoxic, citotoxic, phototoxic and mutagenic action among others in different organism, and the essential oils act at multiple levels in the insects, so the possibility of generating resistance is little probable.
Chemical fungicides are generally used in the control of fungal diseases. Recently, growing public concern over the health and environmental hazards associated with the increased levels of chemical pesticides and the lack of approval for the renewal of some of the most effective active molecules, has led to the development of safe, alternative, and natural methods of post- harvest disease control.
Crops loss due to insect pests varies between 10 and 30% for major crops. Management of agricultural pests over the past half century has been largely depending on the use of synthetic chemical pesticides for field and post-harvest protection of crops.
On the other hand, the main method to control insect pests is using of synthetic pesticides. But, the development of insect resistance to these products, the high operational cost and environmental pollution has created the need for developing of alternative approaches to control many insect pests. In this sense, the usages of essential oils are an alternative to control many field and household insect pests. Can be mixed with many other pesticides to extend their performance. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are among the most efficient botanicals wherein essential oils are presently regarded as a new class of ecological products for controlling of insect pests.